About the “Scythian” Akinak from Rusahinili in Front of Mount Eiduru

 
PIIS086919080017793-9-1
DOI10.31857/S086919080017793-9
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Senior Research Fellow
Affiliation: Donetsk Regional Museum of Local History
Address: Donetsk, Donetsk, Ukraine
Occupation: Senior Research Fellow
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine
Address: Kyiv, Ukrain
Journal nameVostok. Afro-Aziatskie obshchestva: istoriia i sovremennost
EditionIssue 6
Pages38-53
Abstract

The paper examines an iron sword and a bouterol made of horn found in one of the Urartian sites of Rusa son of Argishti – Rusahinili period in front of Mount Eiduru (Ayanis). The sword is a specimen of a blade weapon of nomads of the period of Near Eastern campaigns – an akinax of the Early Scythian Kelermes type. The archaeological context allows us to date the sword no later than 650 BC. It is assumed that the sword from Ayanis was acquired during the western military campaigns of Rusa II and can be regarded as a gift of one of the Cimmerian “chiefs” to King Biannini.

Based on the workmanship and technique of the “staff” of Queen Qaquli from Ayanis, as well as the swords found at Kelermes and Melgunov, it can be assumed that all these objects were made in an Urartian royal workshop. The swords from Kelermes and Melgunov are dip-lomatic gifts of Tsar Biannini to the Scythian chiefs who led the nomads in an alliance with Urartu, or a token of the imminent conclusion of an alliance. The fact that Urartian toreutic craftsmen inscribed the dynastic emblem of Urartian kings (I.M. Diakonoff) on the sword scab-bards of nomads rather indicates that in the eyes of Urartian donors their future owners were considered almost equal in rank to the owner of the Tushpin throne. This does not exclude the possibility that the covers could have been made during the reign of Argishti II.

 

Abstract (other)

 

 

 

KeywordsUrartu, Scythians, Cimmerians, sword, bouterolle, weapons, Haldi
Received23.12.2021
Publication date24.12.2021
Number of characters25678
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1

Введение

2 Построение относительной и абсолютной хронологии памятников скифской архаики все еще остается наиболее актуальной проблемой изучения скифской культуры. Археологические свидетельства присутствия евразийских номадов на территории государства Урарту и царства Маннеев позволяют датировать находки «раннескифского» облика, представленные в надежных археологических и хронологических контекстах, и предложить для них вполне достоверные абсолютные даты [Иванчик, 2006; Балахванцев, 2016]. В связи с этим в работе рассматриваются железный меч и роговая бутероль, найденные в одной из урартских твердынь эпохи Русы II сына Аргишти – Русахинили перед горой Эйдуру (Аянис).
3

О Русахинили перед горой Эйдуру (Аянис)

4
Screenshot_1

Рис. 1. Помещения зоны XI Верхнего города Аяниса [Erdem, Çilingiroğlu, 2010; Batmaz, 2013]. Fig. 1. The rooms in Area XI of the Upper city of Ayanis [Erdem, Çilingiroğlu, 2010; Batmaz, 2013]..

5 Крепость Русахинили перед горой Эйдуру расположена на восточном берегу озера Ван к северу от Тушпы. Архитектурный ансамбль состоит из окруженного фортификационными сооружениями Верхнего города, возведенного на холме, и Нижнего, раскинувшегося у его подножья. По замыслу строителей центральное место в Верхнем городе отведено монументальному храмовому комплексу. Покровителю правящей династии богу Халди посвящен храм «Суси». К западу от храмового комплекса расположен и частично исследован блок жилых помещений зоны XI. Судя по доступным публикациям, назначение комнат заметно различалось: это могли быть кладовые, жилые комнаты, а помещения 10 и 11 использовались для религиозных церемоний (рис. 1) [Çilingiroğlu, Salvini, 2001; Çilingiroğlu, Erdem, 2007, s. 123–130; Erdem, Çilingiroğlu, 2010, p. 151–157; Çilingiroğlu, 2011(1), s. 296–313; 2012, p. 305; 2018(1); Batmaz, 2013; 2014, p. 123, 127]. Вероятно, в этих помещениях могла пребывать царская чета при посещении города и храмового комплекса.
6
Screenshot_2

Рис. 2. Вещи, найденные в комнате 2 зоны IX Верхнего города Аяниса. 1 – меч in situ; 2 – фибула; 3 – бутероль (прорисовка и фото); 4 – меч [Erdem, Çilingiroğlu, 2010; Çilingiroğlu, 2007; 2011(1–2)]. Fig. 2. Items found in room 2 of zone IX of the Upper city of Ayanis. 1 – sword in situ; 2 – fibula; 3 – bouterolle (drawing and photo); 4 – sword [Erdem, Çilingiroğlu, 2010; Çilingiroğlu, 2007; 2011(1–2)].

7 В комнате 2 многокамерного помещения, непосредственно примыкающего к храмовым строениям, найден образец клинкового оружия номадов эпохи переднеазиатской эпопеи – акинак раннескифского облика (рис. 2) [Çilingiroğlu, Erdem, 2007, s. 127, res. 9; Erdem, Çilingiroğlu, 2010, p. 154, fig. 5b; Çilingiroğlu, 2007, res. 7; 2011(2), res. 2, 3, 6–9; Çilingiroğlu, Işıklı, 2014, res.13].
8

О мече из Русахинили

9 Меч был обнаружен в деревянных ножнах, от которых сохранился обгоревший тлен и, видимо, роговая бутероль. Длина меча составляет 44 см (рис. 2, 4). Меч снабжен массивным брусковидным навершием, под которым ясно различим «приваренный» (?) к центральному валику рукояти стержень для крепления темляка. Рукоять меча длиной 12 см имеет характерное трехчастное строение; лезвие сужается. Перекрестие разрушено, но судя по фото, в его абрисе легко угадывается келермесский тип (по Е.В. Черненко). Сторона, обращенная к рукояти, имеет центральный приостренный выступ или, если прибегнуть к формулировке А.Ю. Алексеева, «выступает углом с вогнутыми (втянутыми) образующими» [Алексеев, 1991, с. 273], а боковые грани перекрестия если не прямые, то по крайней мере не сильно закругленные. Нет ни малейшего сомнения в том, что аянисский меч относится к акинакам келермесского типа.

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Система Orphus

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