On the type of economy of the settlements with Bronze Age “textile” pottery in the Volga-Oka interfluve: new data from old collections of ware

 
PIIS086960630009758-2-1
DOI10.31857/S086960630009758-2
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: State Historical Museum
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow, Red Square, 1
Affiliation: National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow, Akademik Kurchatov Square, 1
Affiliation: National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow, Akademik Kurchatov Square, 1
Affiliation: National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow, Akademik Kurchatov Square, 1
Affiliation: National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow, Akademik Kurchatov Square, 1
Journal nameRossiiskaia arkheologiia
EditionIssue 2
Pages19-35
Abstract

The article focuses on the economic model of settlements with net-impressed (“textile”) ceramics of the Bronze Age in the Volga-Oka interfluve based on the investigation of fats in organic residues on vessel fragments with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry methods (GC-MS). Samples for analysis come from reference sites, as well as from a settlement of a different cultural tradition for comparison. A total of 47 samples from 43 vessels were analyzed. Based on the data on the composition of fatty acids of modern products, the groups available for identification were determined. It was found that the same vessels were used for cooking food of different groups. The results obtained made it possible to confirm the decisive role of hunting and fishing for the economy of settlements with “textile” pottery.

Keywords“textile” pottery, GC-MS, fats, fatty acids, economy, the Bronze Age, forest zone, the Volga-Oka interfluve
AcknowledgmentРабота выполнена при поддержке гранта РФФИ офи-м 17-29-04100.
Received27.06.2021
Publication date28.06.2021
Number of characters21460
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1 Отсутствие полноценных данных о типе хозяйства поселений с “сетчатой” или “текстильной” керамикой позднего бронзового века в Волго-Окском междуречье является одной из существенных проблем с момента обособления этих памятников в самостоятельную археологическую культуру (Bahder, 1929). Прежде всего это связано с плохой сохранностью органических материалов в памятниках, расположенных в песчаных грунтах низменностей лесной зоны Русской равнины. Единичные находки костей и зерен (Бадер, 1939. C. 120; Никитин, 1963. C. 213–216; Краснов, 1971. C. 108) легли в основу противоположных утверждений как о наличии развитого земледельческо-скотоводческого хозяйства (Бадер, 1970. C. 78), так и о сохранении охотничье-рыболовецкого, с зачатками земледелия и скотоводства (Краснов, 1987. C. 157). Географическое расположение большинства поселений с “сетчатой” керамикой и реконструкция их культурных связей также позволили определить их близость к “неолитическим племенам” (озерное рыболовство и охота) при возможном наличии скотоводства (Сидоров, 2013. C. 11, 12).
2 Для уточнения этих версий большим потенциалом обладают такие методы исследования, как газовая хроматография и масс-спектрометрия (ГХ-МС) жиров, или шире – липидов, в органических остатках на керамике. Дошедшие до нас остатки органики на сосудах обычно встречаются либо как нагары, чаще на внутренней поверхности, либо в абсорбированном виде в порах неглазурованной керамики. Жиры, наряду с белками и углеводами, входят в состав любого организма, но при этом дольше всего сохраняются во времени. Они представляют собой соединения глицерина и различных жирных кислот (ЖК), которые включают в себя насыщенные, ненасыщенные ЖК и продукты их распада. Идентификация различных ЖК методом ГХ-МС и определение содержимого сосудов в какой-то мере восполняет утрату материалов из органики, что дает нам более веские основания для определения функции сосудов, технологии и др. (Roffet-Salque et al., 2017. P. 634, 635. Tab. 1).
3 Образцы. Объектами исследования стали материалы четырех опорных памятников с “сетчатой” керамикой в Волго-Окском междуречье: Плещеево III (Никитин, 1976), Фефелов Бор I (Фоломеев, 1974), Гришинский Исток III (Азаров, 2017. С. 65–70) и Тюков городок (Фоломеев, 1975). Поселения Гришинский Исток III и Фефелов Бор I расположены на песчаных всхолмлениях левого берега Оки в среднем течении (рис. 1) и относятся к середине – третьей четверти II тыс. до н.э. (Фоломеев, 2017. С. 328, 329; Азаров, 2017. С. 79. Рис. 9). Примерно к этому же времени относятся исследуемые материалы многослойного памятника Плещеево III, расположенного на низкой террасе юго-восточного берега одноименного озера. Тюков городок расположен также на берегу озера, но занимает мыс высокой террасы. Кроме того, материалы последнего относятся к рубежу бронзового и железного веков – примерно к первой четверти I тыс. до н.э. (Фоломеев, 1993. С. 17–20). Предпочтение в выборе образцов отдавалось нагарам как наглядному материалу. Было отобрано 38 образцов от 34 разных сосудов (табл.1; рис. 2).

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