Xylographic edition of books in the capital of Northern Mongolia Ikh-Khure in the seventeenth – early twentieth centuries

 
PIIS086919080001856-8-1
DOI10.31857/S086919080001856-8
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation:
Russian State University for the Humanities
Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Higher School of Economics
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameVostok. Afro-Aziatskie obshchestva: istoriia i sovremennost
EditionIssue 5
Pages125-136
Abstract

The article deals with the history of a center for the xylographic edition of Tibetan and Mongolian books in the capital of Northern Mongolia, Ikh-Khure (Urga) in the seventeenth century, as well as features of its activity prior to the beginning of the twentieth century. The first printing house was opened at the time when Ikh-Khure was a nomadic monastery—the residence of the head of the Mongolian Church. By the beginning of the twentieth century, there were several large printing houses: the main printing house Ikhiin-Sumbum, printing houses at monasteries and monastic communities. Four catalogues of printed books in the Mongolian national archives, Mongolian national library, and the personal collection of the Mongolian scientist R. Otgonbaatar, show that the Ikhiin-Sumbum mainly produced works of Ganjur, books of main Lamaist teachers, prayer books for the monastic services, a popular prayers for personal use. The monastic printing houses published books on medicine, astrology, Buddhist philosophy. Monastic communities edited books dedicated to various Buddhist deities. In Ikh-Khure the Tibetan Ganjur was xylographed; the work on the second canonical collection of books Danjur did begin. Alphabets, dictionaries, stories and other books in Mongolian language were also published in the capital of Northern Mongolia. The Mongol-Tibetan bilinguals were printed. The close examination of xylographs reveals characteristics of publishing traditions in Ikh-Khure. Many of the texts of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries had no title. There are bilinguals that have but colophons in Mongolian language. However, in most cases bilingual books have colophons in two  languages. In some Tibetan books, publishers made explanations in Mongolian. In addition, a method of  oodcutting, not found in other areas, was common in Ikh-Khure. Among the printed books of Ikh-Hure there were private publications. Some residents of Ikh-Khure cut book's boards themselves or ordered it to other masters. 

Keywordswritten tradition of the Mongols, xylography, Northern Mongolia
Received26.10.2018
Publication date28.10.2018
Cite   Download pdf To download PDF you should sign in
Размещенный ниже текст является ознакомительной версией и может не соответствовать печатной

views: 186

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Bilgüüdei G. Catalogue of Mongolian books in the Apartment Museum of Ts. Damdinsüren. Ulaanbaatar, 1998 (in Mongolian).

2. Vladimirtsov B.Ya. Raboty po istorii i etnografii mongol’skikh narodov (Works on the history and ethnography of the Mongolian peoples). Moscow, Vostochnaya literatura, 2002 (in Russian).

3. Dashniam A. Notes on the sanctuary of knowledge. Ulaanbaatar, 1981 (in Mongolian).

4. Yongzon Luvsangalagdanzan. History of Darba Pandita or Precious rosary. Transl. by P. Nyam-Ochir, ed. by T. Tamir. Ulaanbaatar, 2014 (in Mongolian).

5. History of Erdeni Zu. Facsimile of manuscript, transl. and komment. by A.D. Tsendina. Pamyatniki pismennosti Vostoka.CXVIII. Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura, 1999 (in Russian).

6. Kara D. Books of the Mongolian nomads. Moscow, 1972 (in Russian).

7. Mongolyn sүm khijdijn tүүkhehn tovchoon. Ulaanbaatar, 2009 [History of Mongolian monasteries. Ulaanbaatar, 2009 (in Mongolian).

8. Otgonbaatar R. Catalogue of the Mongolian xylographic editions. Tokyo, 1998 (in Mongolian).

9. Otgonbaatar R. From the history of wood printing of Tibetan books by Mongols. Tuvd sudlal. Ulaanbaatar, 2014 (in Mongolian).

10. Otgonbaatar R., Tsendina A.D. Samples of written tradition in Northern Mongolia: alphabets, transcriptions, languages (end of 16 – beginning of 20th century). Moscow: Nauka – Vostochnaya literatura, 2014 (in Russian).

11. Sazykin A.G. Catalogue of the Mongolian manuscripts and xylographs of the Institute of Oriental studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences. T. I. Moscow: Nauka, 1988 (in Russian).

12. Sazykin A.G. Catalog of Buryat xylographs and lithographs from the collections of St. Petersburg. Kyoto University, 2004 (in Russian).

13. Syrtypova S.D., Garmayeva KH.ZH., Bazarov A.A. Buddhist book printing in Buryatia in the 19 – early 20 centuries. Ulaanbaatar, Admon, 2006 (in Russian).

14. Khrelbaatar L. I Bogd Javzandamba Luvsandambijantsan. Ulaanbaatar, 2001 (in Mongolian).

15. Tserensodnom D. About Mongol Danjur. Khel zokhiol sudlal. T. VII, fasc. 5. Ulaanbaatar, 1970 (in Mongolian).

16. Tzevel C. Mongolian book publications and books published by the Scientific Committee of the MPR. Sinzhileku uqaγan. Ulaanbaatar, 1946, No. 12–13 (in Mongolian).

17. Shagdarsüren Ts. History of Mongolian writings. Ulaanbaatar, 2001 (in Mongolian).

18. Shuger Ts. Methods of book printing in Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar, 1976 (in Mongolian).

19. Bethlenfalvy G. A Catalogue of the Urga Kanjur. In the prof. Raghuvira Collection at the International Academy of Indian Culture. New Delhi, 1980.

20. Catalogue of the Manchu-Mongol Section of the Toyo Bunko. By N. Poppe, L. Hurvitz, H. Okada. The Toyo Bunko and the University of Washington Press, 1964.

21. Catalogue of the Mongolian Manuscripts and Xylographs in the St. Petersburg State University Library. Compil. by V.Uspensky. Tokyo, 1999.

22. Čoyijilsürüng. Buriyad modun bar-un nom-un tabun γarčiγ. Studia Mongolica. T. I, fasc. 16. Ulaanbaatar, 1959.

23. Čoyijilsürüng. Buriyad modun bar-un nom-un γarčaγ-ača. Mongol sudlalayn zarim asuudal. T. III, fasc. 5. Ulaanbaatar, 1961, pp. 116–124.

24. Dorzhi. Töbed-Mongγol dokiyan-u bichig, tegübüri neres-un tuhai. Studia Mongolica. T. I, fasc. 2. Ulaanbaatar, 1959.

25. Heissig W. Die Pekinger Lamaistischen Blockdrucke in Mongolischer Sprache. Göttinger Asiatische Gorschungen. Bd. 2. Wiesbaden, 1954.

26. Heissig W. Mongolische Handschriften, Blockdrucke, Landkarten. Wiesbdaden, 1961.

27. Rinchen. Catalogue of Printing Blocks of Buddhist Monasteries in Transbaikalia, Prepared in December, 1911 by the Chancery of Pandita Khampo Lama, Head of the Buddhist Church, Eastern Siberia. Four Mongolian Historical Records. Indo-Asian Literatures. Vol. 11. New Delhi, 1959.

28. Sazykin A.G. Catalogue of the Mongol Manuscripts and Xylographs Preserved in the Library of the Tuvan Ethnological Museum «Sixty Heroes» (Kyzyl). Acta Orientalia Hungarica. T. XLVII, fasc. 3. Budapest, 1994.

29. Gombojab. Mongolchud-un tubed kele-ber zokiyagsan zokiyal-un zuil. Studia Mongolica. T. I, fasc. 28. Ulaanbaatar, 1959.

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up