Tamgas and Runic Inscription on Two Vessels from Muruisky Island on the Angara River

 
PIIS086919080008441-2-1
DOI10.31857/S086919080008441-2
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Senior Research Fellow of the Department of History and Culture of Central Asia on the Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of the Siberian Branch of the RAS
Affiliation: Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of the Siberian Branch of the RAS
Address: Ulan-Ude, 6, Sakhyanova St., Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia
Occupation: Leading Researcher
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology named after A. Margulan
Address: Almaty, Kazakhstan
Occupation: Associated Professor of Department of Archaeology, Ethnography and Museology of Altai State University
Affiliation: Altai State University
Address: 61 Lenin Avenue, Barnaul, 656049, Russia
Journal nameVostok. Afro-Aziatskie obshchestva: istoriia i sovremennost
EditionIssue 1
Pages191-206
Abstract

The article deals with the attempt to comprehensively study of two metal vessels found in the treasure on Muruisky island on Angara river, which became known to the general public in 2008. Based on a comparative analysis of the findings of similar products torevtics in the memorial and funeral complexes of the Türkic period in Inner Asia, it is concluded that they belong to the category of prestigious objects as attributes of the nomadic social elite of the 8th – early 9th centuries A.D. Сomparing the signs of identity (tamga) applied to the vessels with the famous monuments of the region allows it is possible to identify two of them as belonging to the ruling clans of the Eastern Türks and Uyghurs (the Ashina and Yaγlaqar dynasties respectively), as well as to clans of other important nomadic unions of central areas of Mongolia of the same period. For tamga signs on the neck of vessel 2 it is possible to find analogies mainly among the monuments of Tuva and the Minusinsk depression. The fact of their relatively late application to the surface of the vessel refers to the time of the fall of the Uyghur Qaghanate and the expansion of the Qïrqïz in Inner Asia.A new reading of the runic inscription on vessel 2 is based on the personal direct acquaintance with the artifact at the State Historical Museum in Moscow and subsequent work with its photographs of high-quality. In general, the identification of runic characters does not cause difficulties, the fact of which caused to offer an accurate reading of the inscription without assumptions and grammatical stretches. At the same time, it is possible that part of the inscription, which placed on the damaged field of the surface of the vessel, was created earlier than the rest of the text. Since the inscription was not completely restored, it seems correct to consider any interpretations premature. An analysis of spelling of the inscription shows the possibility to compare it with the monuments of the period of the Uyghur Qaghanate (747–840/847). The fact is partially contradicted by some features of the graphics, which, however, may be explained by the presence here of some signs of the mentioned above the earlier inscription.

KeywordsMuruisky treasure, Old Turkic Runic Writing Monuments, Tamga sign, monuments of the ancient Turkic runic writing, social history, Ashina, Yaγlaqar, Qïrqïz
Received08.02.2020
Publication date28.02.2020
Number of characters37213
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1 Минуло десять лет после опубликования двух серебряных сосудов, задолго до того случайно обнаруженных на острове Муруйский на Ангаре [Николаев, Кубарев, Кустов, 2008]. Сведения об обстоятельствах этого открытия, напоминающих детективный сюжет, о последующей судьбе находок, а также общее описание и атрибуция сохранившихся предметов даны первыми исследователями памятника, которые ввели его в научный оборот и положили начало истории изучения клада с острова Муруйский. Наибольший интерес сразу вызвал один из предметов – сосуд 2 (мы следуем нумерации, данной первоисследователями), на котором имеется руническая надпись, поэтому вскоре появились новые публикации клада, где представлены первые попытки прочтения текста [Васильев-Дьаргыстай, 2009(1–2) (чтение Ц. Баттулги); Kubarev, 2015, p. 61–62 (замечания М. Эрдала); Базылхан, 2015, 53 б.; Osawa, 2016]. Однако в распоряжении большинства специалистов находился, по-видимому, ограниченный набор хороших фотоснимков основных видов обоих сосудов, по которым, вероятно, сделаны рисунки артефактов и прорисовки граффити на их поверхности (авторство документальных материалов в публикациях не указано). Как становится ясно теперь, это немаловажное обстоятельство послужило препятствием для распознания некоторых графем и соответственно убедительного прочтения надписи нашими предшественниками. Кроме того, в тех же графических материалах есть неточность в воспроизведении одного из знаков на донце сосуда 1; оказались неучтенными тамги на горловине сосуда 2 и целая группа символов на его донце, перекрываемых руническим текстом и хаотичными резными линиями, «не складывающимися в конкретное изображение» [Kubarev, 2015, p. 56]. Все это побуждает нас уклониться от подробного критического рассмотрения ранее предложенных нашими коллегами интерпретаций рунического текста и собраний знаков (тамга) на обоих сосудах, с тем чтобы перейти к изложению результатов самостоятельного изучения памятника.
2 Данное коллективное исследование основано прежде всего на ознакомлении de visu с предметами клада в хранилище Государственного исторического музея в Москве, а также на рассмотрении приобретенных высококачественных фотографий общего вида и деталей обоих сосудов (В.В. Тишин и Н.Н. Серегин при любезном содействии Е.Ю. Гончарова, научного сотрудника Института востоковедения РАН, и Ю.В. Демиденко, научного сотрудника Государственного исторического музея, 2017 г.). В дальнейшем по крупным фотоотпечаткам видов сосудов (30×40 см) сделана прорисовка изображений и знаков, определена вероятная очередность их создания на поверхности предметов и выполнена реконструкция рунического текста на донце сосуда 2 (А.Е. Рогожинский и В.В. Тишин, 2018 г.). Все это позволило с учетом достижений предыдущих исследователей памятника существенно дополнить его характеристику как источника и получить новые результаты, которые представляются здесь впервые.

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