A New Discursive Revolution? (Towards Comprehending Two Typological Characteristics of Internet Communication)

 
PIIS241377150014556-4-1
DOI10.31857/S241377150014556-4
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Saratov State University
Address: Russian Federation, Saratov
Journal nameIzvestiia Rossiiskoi akademii nauk. Seriia literatury i iazyka
EditionVolume 80 Issue 2
Pages64-80
Abstract

The article presents a view of the current state of the theory of discourse, which, according to the author, is going through a transitional period, associated, on the one hand, with the areas of speech research that have become relevant in recent years, and on the other hand – with the emergence and rapid development of a fundamentally new sphere of speech communication – the Internet communication.

The author compares the current state of the theory of discourse with the previous one, in which three full-fledged scientific revolutions took place in a very short time (the text does not have to be artistic; the text does not have to be written; the text does not have to be monologic), and suggests that the time is ripe for a new – the fourth – discursive scientific revolution: the text does not have to go beyond the mind of a separate language personality; an inner speech, a monologic verbal thinking is in itself a valuable object of the theory of discourse.

The article examines the theoretical (typology of speech) and practical (empirical psycholinguistics, literary criticism) prerequisites for the formation of a new direction in the theory of discourse – discursive studies on monologic verbal thinking.

The main part of the research is devoted to Internet communication.

The focus is on two opposite, but dialectically related characteristics of Internet communication: an increase in the degree of dialogicity (the number of sources of information and the rate of exchange of remarks and making new contacts) and a decrease in the degree of dialogicity (autism and escapism) (“interactivity and interpassivity”), – which the author proposes to understand as a simultaneous strengthening in Internet communication, firstly, the beginning of a monologue corresponding to the “fourth discursive revolution”, and secondly – the beginning of an influential one, seemingly opposite to the first, but in reality inextricably linked with it.

Keywordsdiscursive scientific revolution, communication models, monologic verbal thinking, Internet communication, interactivity, interpassivity, Internet creativity
Publication date24.06.2021
Number of characters47809
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1 0. Введение
2 Становление и развитие теории дискурса (до этого – лингвистики текста) ознаменовалось целым рядом полноценных научных революций, приведших к разрыву традиции и значительному переосмыслению не только собственно теории дискурса, но и лингвистики в целом. По мнению многих ученых, появление и развитие дискурсивного анализа привело к переосмыслению многих (или даже всех) основополагающих положений лингвистики: распространенной является точка зрения, что сегодняшняя лингвистика не может выполнять даже свои традиционные задачи – изучать язык и речь – так, как будто бы не было дискурсивного анализа [1]–[3].
3 Сегодня с большой степенью уверенности можно сформулировать содержание не одной, а трех дискурсивных революций:
4 1) текст не обязательно должен быть художественным (т.е. на звание текста со всем набором текстовых категорий, единиц, закономерностей и правил, моделей порождения и восприятия – и существующих разработанных методов их изучения – могут претендовать не только художественные тексты, которые одни до появления лингвистики текста и изучались и для которых была выявлена и проанализирована данная система категорий и т.д.),
5 2) текст не обязательно должен быть письменным,
6 3) текст не обязательно должен быть монологическим [1]; [2]; [4]; [5].
7 “Четвертой дискурсивной революцииˮ, которой посвящена настоящая статья, собственно, не было, но она во многих отношениях “проситсяˮ: текст (или, вернее, объект, претендующий на звание текста) не обязательно должен выходить за пределы мышления одной отдельно взятой языковой личности (быть озвученным, записанным, тем более – отправленным индивидуальному или коллективному адресату), иными словами, полноценный объект теории дискурса – внутренняя речь, монологическое речевое мышление (далее – ММ), которое и рассматривается как дискурс или текст.
8 (Сделаем важное замечание. Научная революция не равна простому расширению объекта, а формулировка с “не обязательноˮ в качестве основного понятия нехороша для научного направления. И то, и другое возможно только в случае качественно иного осмысления объекта, выявления глубинных законов и категорий, обусловливающих его природу, структуру, функционирование. Как известно, расширение объекта, привлечение дополнительных его вариантов иногда приводило к этому, но гораздо чаще – нет. В трех дискурсивных научных революциях такое совмещение было, в гипотетической четвертой – не было.)
9 Сформулированное нами таким образом положение (скорее гипотеза) не может не только претендовать на звание научной революции, рядоположенной трем вышеназванным, но и не может считаться научным направлением, ибо полноценное научное направление (в современном понимании, “что такое наукаˮ) должно включать три обязательные составляющие: материал, проблему, метод. Ничего этого нет – по понятной причине: ученые не экстрасенсы, и данный объект – ММ – им недоступен.

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