Zoological Metaphor in Medical Terminology

Publication type Article
Status Published
Affiliation: Saint Petersburg State University
Address: Russia, St. Petersburg
Affiliation: Institute for Linguistic Studies RAS
Address: Russia, St. Petersburg
Affiliation: Saint Petersburg State University
Address: Russia, St. Petersburg
Affiliation: Saint Petersburg State University
Address: Russia, St. Petersburg
Journal nameRusskaya Rech’
EditionIssue 6

The article discusses the names of animals that are used to characterize a person in a state of health and illness. The metaphorical designations of a person are analyzed by their appearance, character, etc., reflected in dictionaries (cf.: amoeba, scorpion, aphid, etc.), examples of stable comparisons are given using zoonyms (stuck like a tick, dumb like a fish and etc.), It is shown that the phenomenon of metaphorization and metonymic transfer of the meanings of commonly used words is typical for the formation of terms in the sublanguage of medicine. Several dozens of examples of syndromes and symptoms of human diseases, objects of its morphology, physiology and pathology are given, in the names of which the names of animals are used - from cnidarians to mammals (mitral butterfly, fish mouth, frog paw symptom, etc.). The given terms are different in their origin, some terms are calct from Greek or Latin, cf.: arachnodactyly (Greek ἀράχνη - spider + δάκτυλος - finger) - "spider fingers"; goose foot (Latin: pes anserinus). In addition to modern terms, obsolete names of diseases are also given, cf .: throat toad (obsolete) - tonsillitis; angina pectoris (obsolete) – angina pectoris. The resulting terms do not contain an assessment of a person (his personal qualities), the object of metaphorical comprehension in such cases is the affected functional system of the body (or organ). This is the difference between a medical zoomorphic metaphor and a general language metaphor.

Keywordsmedical terminology, figurative expressions, zoological metaphors
Publication date28.12.2022
Number of characters26507
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 247

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Balahonov A. V. Oshibki razvitya [Errors of Development]. 2nd edition, amended. Saint Petersburg: ELBI-SPb Publishers, 2001. 288 p.

2. Balahonov A. V. (ed.) Bol'shoi tolkovyi slovar' biologicheskih terminov (s vklyucheniem osnovnyh medicinskih terminov) [Gross Explanatory Dictionary of Biological Terms (Including Basic Medical Terms)]. Saint Petersburg: Kontrast Ltd Publisher, 2017. 912 p.

3. Borodulin V. I. (ed.). Medicinskii enciklopedicheskii slovar' [Medical Encyclopedic Dictionary]. Moscow: Oniks 21 vek Publisher, 2002. 704 p.

4. Veselovskii A. N. Istoricheskaya poetika [Historical Poetics]. Leningrad: Goslitizdat Publishers, 1940. 146 P.

5. Churilov L. P., Kolobov A. V., Stroev Yu. I. (Eds) Tolkovyi slovar' izbrannyh medicinskih terminov (eponimy i obraznye vyrazheniya) [Explanatory Dictionary of Selected Medical Terms (Eponyms and Figurative Expressions)]. – Saint Petersburg: ELBI-SPb Publishers, 2010: 336 p.

6. Fedorov V. D. (ed.). Bol'shoi slovar' medicinskih terminov [Gross Dictionary of Medical Terms]. Moscow: ZAO Centrpoligraf Publisher, 2007; 959 p.

7. Grinev-Grinevich S. V. Terminovedenie [Terminology]. Moscow. Izd. centr «Akademiya», 2008. 304 s.

8. Lazyuk G. I. (ed.) Teratologiya cheloveka [Human Teratology]. Moscow: Meditsina Publishers, 1991. 480 p.

9. Mchedlidze T. P. Otorinolaringologicheskii slovar' [Otorhinolaryngological Dictionary]. Saint Petersburg: Dialekt Publishers, 2007: 504 p.

10. Nugumanova A. A. K voprosu o proishozhdenii metafor [To the question of the origin of metaphors]. Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2008; 13(2): 286-289.

11. Sharapa A. A. [Metaphorization as a kind of semantic education of medical terms]. Abstracts of the report at the International Scientific and Practical Conference“Technologies for teaching Russian as a foreign language and diagnostics of speech development”. Minsk, BSMU, 2007, Pp. 39–42.

12. Teliya V. N. [Secondary nomination and its types]. Metafora v yazyke i tekste [Metaphor in language and text]. Moscow. Nauka Publ., 1988: 202 p.

Система Orphus