Zoological Metaphor in Medical Terminology

 
PIIS013161170023734-6-1
DOI10.31857/S013161170023734-6
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Saint Petersburg State University
Address: Russia, St. Petersburg
Affiliation: Institute for Linguistic Studies RAS
Address: Russia, St. Petersburg
Affiliation: Saint Petersburg State University
Address: Russia, St. Petersburg
Affiliation: Saint Petersburg State University
Address: Russia, St. Petersburg
Journal nameRusskaya Rech’
EditionIssue 6
Pages22-37
Abstract

The article discusses the names of animals that are used to characterize a person in a state of health and illness. The metaphorical designations of a person are analyzed by their appearance, character, etc., reflected in dictionaries (cf.: amoeba, scorpion, aphid, etc.), examples of stable comparisons are given using zoonyms (stuck like a tick, dumb like a fish and etc.), It is shown that the phenomenon of metaphorization and metonymic transfer of the meanings of commonly used words is typical for the formation of terms in the sublanguage of medicine. Several dozens of examples of syndromes and symptoms of human diseases, objects of its morphology, physiology and pathology are given, in the names of which the names of animals are used - from cnidarians to mammals (mitral butterfly, fish mouth, frog paw symptom, etc.). The given terms are different in their origin, some terms are calct from Greek or Latin, cf.: arachnodactyly (Greek ἀράχνη - spider + δάκτυλος - finger) - "spider fingers"; goose foot (Latin: pes anserinus). In addition to modern terms, obsolete names of diseases are also given, cf .: throat toad (obsolete) - tonsillitis; angina pectoris (obsolete) – angina pectoris. The resulting terms do not contain an assessment of a person (his personal qualities), the object of metaphorical comprehension in such cases is the affected functional system of the body (or organ). This is the difference between a medical zoomorphic metaphor and a general language metaphor.

Keywordsmedical terminology, figurative expressions, zoological metaphors
Received28.12.2022
Publication date28.12.2022
Number of characters26507
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