On the cultural attribution of the Itkul and Gamayun-Itkul antiquities of the Trans-Urals

 
PIIS086960630004107-6-1
DOI10.31857/S086960630004107-6
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Ural Federal University
Address: Ekaterinburg, Russia
Journal nameRossiiskaia arkheologiia
EditionIssue 3
Pages131-146
Abstract

Based on the analysis of pottery, tools, settlements, dwellings, household structures, production facilities, osteological and other materials, the study refines characteristics of the Itkul culture of the mountain-forest Trans-Urals. A related, but different, and more extensive Iset culture is distinguished. It is found that the so-called ‘eastern variant of the Itkul culture’ in the Lower Tobol region with pottery of different periods of the ‘second Itkul’ (‘Gamayun-Itkul’), Karagai Aul and Vak-Kur types differs from the settlements of the Itkul metalworkers of the Trans-Urals by any definitions. The author proposes to refer to it as the Yurtobor culture. Taking into account the radiocarbon analyzes obtained for the coal from the of the Tobol archaeological sites, the lower boundary of the Yurtobor and Iset complexes is assumed to be more ancient dating to the turn of the 9th / 8th centuries BC.

Keywordsthe Trans-Urals, the Lower Tobol region, forest zone, the boundary of the Bronze and Iron Ages, archaeological cultures, new characteristics
AcknowledgmentThe work is done in the framework of the state assignment of the Ministry of education of the Russian Federation, the theme 33.7280/warhead, and with the support of RFBR grant No. 18-09-40011.
Publication date23.08.2019
Number of characters35288
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1 Хронологические и территориальные рамки исследования. Рубеж бронзового и железного веков в Зауралье (VIII/VII–IV/III вв. до н.э.), традиционно именуемый первой половиной раннего железного века, отмечен появлением множества культурных образований с керамикой вагильского, гамаюнского, гамаюно-иткульского, карагай-аульского, вак-куровского, баитовского, носиловского, воробьевского, гороховского, гафурийского, кашинского, зеленомысского и иных типов. Такое их разнообразие на небольшой территории (около 350×450 км) на восточном склоне Уральских гор и юго-западной кромке Западносибирской равнины, объясняется рядом природных и социальных факторов. В том числе: общей трансформацией позднебронзовых культур при переходе в эпоху железа; миграционными процессами, спровоцированными глобальными изменениями климата, разнообразием экологических ниш в Зауралье; формированием системы хозяйственной специализации в среде аборигенов и мигрантов края; установлением новых этнокультурных и экономических связей между лесными, лесостепными и степными племенами.
2 Предметом нашего анализа являются иткульские и гамаюно-иткульские (иткульско-гамаюнские) древности.
3 Аборигенная иткульская (исетская) и пришлая гамаюнская (каменогорская) культуры были выделены под разными названиями К.В. Сальниковым (1960. С. 13–14; 1962. С. 20–46) и Е.М Берс (1960; 1963. С. 69–84).
4 Северный (вагильский) вариант гамаюнской культуры – в системе древностей верховьев Тавды – рассмотрела В.Д. Викторова (1970). Новую концепцию генезиса и развития культуры предложил В.А. Борзунов (1982; 1990; 1992). Согласно этим исследованиям, предки гамаюнского населения – таежные охотники-рыболовы атлымской и лозьвинской культур – мигрировали на юг из Нижнего Приобья и бассейна Конды. Формирование нового этноса произошло в верховьях Тавды. В Зауралье и Притоболье пришельцы встретились с населением бархатовской культуры конца эпохи бронзы. Контакты с межовскими коллективами у них не зафиксированы. В начале железного века наиболее тесными и продолжительными у гамаюнского населения были взаимоотношения с иткульскими металлургами. В Зауралье с приходом мигрантов появились необычные укрепления, состоявшие из большого бревенчатого дома, огражденного рвом. Меднолитейное производство у пришельцев находилось в зачаточном состоянии. Гамаюнский орудийный комплекс составляли изделия из камня, кости и глины. Навыки содержания и разведения домашнего скота, а также обычай использования толченого талька при производстве керамики гамаюнские общины приобрели в процессе контактов с аборигенами Зауралья. Судя по преобладанию посуды с ямочно-волнисто-прокатанным декором над ямочно-крестовой, а также наличию “укрепленных жилищ”, в гамаюнской культуре преобладали потомки кондинского населения.

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