Epoch-Making Triad of Chinese Revolutions

Publication type Article
Status Published
Occupation: Chief Researcher
Affiliation: Institute of China and Modern Asia of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 32, Nakhimovsky prospect, Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation
Journal nameProblemy Dalnego Vostoka
EditionIssue 1

In the Chinese theory of the "triple revolution" the three major stages of the entire period of the PRC's existence were named as follows: 1) the "revolution of the seizure of power", which led to the overthrow of the old regime and the establishment of a new one; 2) the "revolution of reform", which paved the way for self-improvement and development of the socialist system; 3) a "transitional or transformational revolution", which completes the primary stage of building a socialist society. The dates of the turning points of a revolutionary nature are considered to be 1949 (the proclamation of the PRC), 1978 (the beginning of the policy of "reforms and opening-up"), 2012 (the holding of the 18th Congress of the CPC).


The revolution of 1949 was of a new democratic nature and consolidated a socialist orientation. However, soon after the revolution, during the lifetime of Mao Zedong, the leftist course won and all phases of socialist construction (the policy of "new democracy", socialist transformations and the transition to communism through the "cultural revolution") were passed in an accelerated mode. The program of market reforms and the "mixed economy" launched at the end of 1978 made it possible to increase economic potential and raise living standards, but resulted in a number of negative consequences of the "loss of the banner", i.e. deviation from the ultimate goal of socialist construction. The coming to power of the fifth generation of Chinese leaders in 2012, led by Xi Jinping, was marked by a significant adjustment of the policy of "reform and opening-up" and the implementation of a number of important social transformations, including the fight against corruption and poverty. China's "own path" can be seen as a transition from "state capitalism" to "market socialism" with features of specific convergence and growing socialism. Given the complexity of China's current internal and external situation and the difficulties of a "trailblazer," the implementation of the new strategy will be far from cloudless.

KeywordsChina, permanent revolution, "reform and opening-up", Marxism, capitalism, socialism, convergence, historical development, periodization
Publication date17.03.2023
Number of characters41830
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