The Dismantling of the Batum Subsystem of International Relations and Its Historical Consequences, September–November 1918

 
PIIS013038640024696-3-1
DOI10.31857/S013038640024696-3
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation:
Institute of World History, RAS
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: Institute of World History, RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameNovaia i noveishaia istoriia
EditionIssue 1
Pages85-99
Abstract

The final phase of the Batum subsystem unfolded despite the apparent defeat of the Central Powers on the main fronts of the Great War already at the end of September 1918. It was a consequence of the inertia of German and Ottoman expansion in the region, which received a new impetus after the capture of Baku in September 1918. For two months, efforts to maintain Berlin's and Constantinople's influence in the region continued, partly through uneasy compromises with Soviet Russia and thanks to an operational pause taken by British troops. The economic potential of exploiting the Transcaucasia for the Central Powers could not be realised, but the overall capabilities were unlocked and preparations gave way to a test-delivery phase. The impact of the intervention of the Central Powers on the course of the Civil War in the North Caucasus increased. The elimination of the Batum subsystem was one of the primary objectives of the British emissaries who were arriving from mid-November, however, they were unable to undo or transform its effects due to the same reasons that led to the policy failures of the German and Ottoman actors.

Keywordsinternational relations, international systems, inter-imperial competition, post-imperial spaces, World War I, Russian Civil War, Armistice of Mudros, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Ottoman Empire, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan, RSFSR
Received18.10.2022
Publication date28.02.2023
Number of characters43030
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