Findings of Seleucid and Ptolemaic coins in Dagestan and the Problem of the Caspian Waterway

 
PIIS086919080021236-6-1
DOI10.31857/S086919080021236-6
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Leading Research Fellow
Affiliation: Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Moscow, Moscow, Russia
Occupation: Head of department of Archaeology
Affiliation: Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of the Daghestan Federal Research Center of RAS
Address: Yaraghskiy str., 75, office 510
Journal nameVostok. Afro-Aziatskie obshchestva: istoriia i sovremennost
EditionIssue 4
Pages230-240
Abstract

In 1964 and 1985 in the south of Dagestan, two treasures were found, which included Hellenistic coins. The first consisted of several dozen Seleucid coins, of which only two bronze coins of Antiochus IV, the so-called “Egyptianizing” series, have survived. The second hoard included bronze Ptolemaic coins of the 6c and 6e series, issued in the first third of the 2nd century BC and related to the same type: Zeus-Ammon / two eagles perched side-by-side on two thunderbolts with a double cornucopiae in the left field. The most probable reason why Seleucid and Ptolemaic bronze coins ended up in Sharakun was the participation of their owners in trade along the Caspian waterway.

Apparently, their masters arrived from Antioch on the Orontes and Alexandria to Sharakun, intending to follow the Caspian Sea and up the Oxus to Greco-Bactria. The bronze coins they had there would not only be absolutely useless, but also very burdensome. Therefore, merchants could either leave them with a reliable person in the Sharakun settlement, or bury them in a secluded place to pick them up on the way back. However, they, apparently, were not destined to return to Sharakun. After this became clear, the Ptolemaic coins, which were of interest to local residents only for their weight, turned out to be part of the foundry hoard. For us, both Sharakun treasures are the most valuable evidence, proving not only the very existence of the Caspian waterway, but also the implementation of trade contacts between Central Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean.

KeywordsSeleucid bronze coins, Ptolemaic bronze coins, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Ptolemy V, Caspian waterway
Received11.08.2022
Publication date06.09.2022
Number of characters19592
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1 Вопрос о реальности Каспийского водного пути, соединявшего в древности Среднюю Азию и Восточное Причерноморье, дискутируется в науке ещё с позапрошлого века. Одни учёные [Бартольд, 2002, с. 298; Tarn, 1951, p. 488–490; Манандян, 1954, c. 57; Bernard, 1985, p. 110, not. 4; Рапэн, 2009, с. 113; Ефремов, 2012, с. 19] отрицали саму возможность его существования, в то время как другие [Herrmann, 1914, S. 26; Гозалишвили, 1956, с. 160; Ямпольский, 1956, с. 162–171; Лордкипанидзе, 1957, с. 380; Брашинский, 1967, с. 760–761; Мукашева, 1972, с. 15; Юсупов, 1984, с. 91–94; Гаджиев, 1997, с. 102–107; Наджафова, 2009, с. 85; Ртвеладзе, 2012, с. 8], расходясь между собой во взглядах на локализацию его отдельных участков и хронологию функционирования, считали это вполне вероятным. При этом споры шли вокруг достоверности античной нарративной традиции, географических реалий эллинистическо-римского времени, а также сделанных на территории Средней Азии и Закавказья археологических находок [Callieri, 2003, p. 542]. Однако, насколько нам известно, ещё никто при обсуждении вопроса о Каспийском водном пути не обращался к материалам двух кладов из Южного Дагестана, в состав которых входили эллинистические монеты.
2 Первый клад был обнаружен в ходе земляных работ на левом берегу впадающего рядом с Самуром в Каспий р. Гюльгерычай, к востоку от поселка совхоза им. Герейханова, в урочище Шаракун в 1964 г. (рис. 1)1. Он состоял из несколько десятков селевкидских монет [Гаджиев, 1997, с. 55], однако только две из них поступили в коллекцию историко-этнографического музея ДГУ в Махачкале2, где и хранятся по настоящее время. Ниже приводится их описание3. 1. Рисунки 1–6 находятся на цветной вклейке.

2. Авторы считают своим долгом выразить глубокую благодарность директору музея Г.И. Исмаилову за помощь в работе с монетами.

3. К сожалению, описание монет в первой публикации [Дзагурова, 1978, с. 29] не вполне точно.
3 1. Инв. № 1577. Бронзовая монета Антиоха IV Епифана4. В – 34,7 г, р – 35 мм, с/о – 12, [Houghton et al., 2008(1), № 1413] (рис. 2). 4. Ещё одна аналогичная монета в 1978 г. хранилась в коллекции доцента ДГУ Ю.Л. Полякина [Дзагурова, 1978, с. 29]. Её нынешнее местонахождение неизвестно.
4 Л. с.: Голова Сераписа в лавровом венке и тении, увенчанной basileion5, вправо, скошенный край, каверна в центре кружка, точечный ободок. 5. О basileion см.: [Lorber, 2018(1), p. 131 (с предшествующей литературой)].
5 О. с.: Орёл, стоящий на керавне вправо, каверна в центре кружка, легенда: справа, сверху вниз: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ/ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ; слева, сверху вниз: ΘΕΟΥ/ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ.
6 2. Инв. № 1578. Бронзовая монета Антиоха IV Епифана. В – 19 г, р – 25 мм, с/о – 12, [Houghton et al., 2008(1), № 1414] (рис. 3).
7 Л. с.: Голова Исиды в тении, увенчанной basileion, вправо, каверна в центре кружка, точечный ободок.
8 О. с.: Орёл, стоящий на керавне вправо, скошенный край, каверна в центре кружка, легенда: справа, сверху вниз: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ/ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ; слева, сверху вниз: ΘΕΟΥ/ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ.
9 Обе монеты принадлежат к специальной «египтизированной» серии царской бронзы, выпущенной монетным двором Антиохии на Оронте в 169/8 г. до н.э. с целью увековечить первые успехи Антиоха IV в Египте [Le Rider, 1994, p. 19; Houghton et al., 2008(1), p. 44, 68]. Серия состояла из четырёх деноминаций [Houghton et al., 2008(1), p. 68–69 (с предшествующей литературой)]. Одна наша монета, с головой Сераписа на аверсе, относится ко второй [Houghton et al., 2008(1), p. 69: деноминация АА], а другая, с головой Исиды, – к третьей [Houghton et al., 2008(1), p. 69: деноминация А].

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Fig. 1. Eastern Caucasus and Archaeological Sites of the Hellenistic Period in Sharakun: 1 – First Sharakun treasure; 2 – Second Sharakun treasure; 3 – Sharakun burial ground; 4 – Sharakun settlement (Balakhvantsev_1.png, 710 Kb) [Download]

Fig. 2. Bronze coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Inv. No. 1577 (Балахванцев_2.png, 1,450 Kb) [Download]

Fig. 3. Bronze coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Inv. No. 1578 (Балахванцев_3.png, 1,486 Kb) [Download]

Fig. 4. Bronze Ptolemaic coin. No. 3 (Балахванцев_4.png, 1,417 Kb) [Download]

Fig. 5. Bronze Ptolemaic coin. No. 4 (Балахванцев_5.png, 1,373 Kb) [Download]

Fig. 6. Bronze Ptolemaic coin. No. 14 (Балахванцев_6.png, 1,364 Kb) [Download]

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