Review of Studies of Dagestan Arabic-Language Sources of the Post-Soviet Period

 
PIIS086919080016925-4-1
DOI10.31857/S086919080016925-4
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: acting director, Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Affiliation: Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Makhachkala, IHAE DFRC RAS, 75, M. Yaragskogo st., Makhachkala, Republic of Daghestan, 367030, Russian Federation
Occupation: Senior Researcher
Affiliation: Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Yaragskogo str.,75
Journal nameVostok. Afro-Aziatskie obshchestva: istoriia i sovremennost
EditionIssue 5
Pages239-249
Abstract

Materials in the Arabic language, mainly concentrated in Dagestan, occupy the most important place among the sources on the history of the North Caucasus. Its research has started since the 19th century. The academic study of these sources continued with the establishment of the Center of Oriental Manuscripts in 1963 in Makhachkala at the Institute of Language, History and Literature of Dagestan branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In the post-Soviet period, Russian orientalists drew attention to a number of still insufficiently studied Arabic-language sources. The research work revealed more new sources that significantly changed established ideas about social, legal and military-political history of Dagestan. Extensive study and translations of several historical chronicles, a wide range of various sources from the period of the Caucasian War were introduced into scientific circulation. Systematic work is underway to study the epistolary sources kept both in the Fund of Oriental Manuscripts of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Makhachkala (it includes now thousands of manuscripts and documents) and in numerous private manuscript collections. Studies of Arabic-language written monuments often remain out of sight not only for a wide range of readers, but also for the historians who specialize on the history of the Caucasus. This article devoted to their review and analysis is intended to fill this gap; it summarizes a certain result of enduring research work directed to the study of these manuscripts, carried out in the post-Soviet period.

Keywordsarcheography, Eastern Caucasus, Dagestan, Arabic-language handwritten book, Dagestan historical works, Sufi literature, monuments of law
AcknowledgmentThe reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 20-19-50149
Received24.09.2021
Publication date29.10.2021
Number of characters15673
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1 Известный кавказовед А.Н. Генко отмечал, что среди источников по истории Кавказа «выдающаяся роль принадлежит источникам арабского происхождения или арабоязычным» [Генко, 1941, с. 81]. В этом отношении особенно выделяется Дагестан, арабоязычное письменное наследие которого столь масштабно и разнообразно, что до сих пор не определены его точные границы. До наших дней сохранились десятки тысяч манускриптов и документов.
2 Наибольший интерес у дагестанских востоковедов вызывали исторические сочинения, изучению которых уделялось самое пристальное внимание. Особое отношение было к хронике «Дербенд-наме» как одному из самых ранних и популярных исторических сочинений Дагестана. Исследованием хроники занимались М.С. Саидов, А.Р. Шихсаидов, Г.М.-Р. Оразаев, И.Х. Абдуллаев, Д.М. Маламагомедов, П.М. Алибекова. Остаются открытыми вопросы датировки, языка оригинала и атрибуции этого сочинения. Однозначная трактовка, объявляющая его автором Мухаммада Аваби Акташи из Эндирея, выглядит спорной. По другой версии, происхождение создателя «Дербенд-наме» можно отнести к г. Агдаш, расположенному на территории современного Азербайджана. Промежуточным итогом изучения данной хроники следует считать объемный труд, вышедший под редакцией Г.М.-Р. Оразаева, включающий в себя научные описания списков «Дербенд-наме» и переводы на 15 языках: дагестанских, восточных и европейских [Мухаммад Аваби Акташи, 2018].
3 Столь же пристальное внимание уделялось и хронике «Тарих Дагестан». А.Р. Шихсаидов, изучив более 40 списков этого памятника, дал его общую характеристику и оценку, обзор истории изучения и переводов, и представил свой сводный и комментированный перевод. Существуют определенные разногласия по датировке этого сочинения. Т.М. Айтберов предложил свою, достаточно убедительную версию происхождения этой хроники. По его мнению, данное сочинение носит компилятивный характер и состоит из трех самостоятельных частей, в которых содержатся видоизмененные заимствования из различных восточных хроник. Дату его создания он возводит к XVIII в., а не XIV–XV вв., как предполагалось ранее [Айтберов, 2013].
4 Многолетний труд дагестанских востоковедов по изучению исторических хроник вылился в издание в 1993 г. фундаментальной работы под названием «Дагестанские исторические сочинения». Помимо упомянутых «Дербенд-наме» и «Тарих Дагестан», в нее были включены исследования и переводы ряда других хроник: «История Абу Муслима», «Ахты-наме», «История Маза», «История Каракайтага», «История Ирхана», «История Гирейхана», «История потомков Мухаммада Казикумухского», «О борьбе дагестанцев против иранских завоевателей», «Тарихи Эндирей» и «Тарихи Кызляркала» [Шихсаидов, Айтберов, Оразаев, 1993].
5 Большое внимание уделялось и вводу в научный оборот источников периода Кавказской войны. Важным событием стало критическое издание арабоязычных произведений Абдурахмана из Газикумуха. А.Р. Шихсаидов, Х.А. Омаров и Н.А. Тагирова осуществили издание двух его трудов – «Книга воспоминаний» и «Краткое изложение подробного описания дел Шамиля». Перевод первого из них, существующего в единственном списке, за исключением ряда отрывков, был выполнен блестящим знатоком арабоязычной литературы Дагестана М.-С. Саидовым. Его изданию в 1976 г. помешало целенаправленное преследование дагестанских востоковедов, которых обвиняли в пропаганде «реакционного ислама». В сочинении Абдурахмана из Газикумуха последовательно описываются события, связанные с деятельностью трех имамов, и затем приводится историко-этнографический очерк о дагестанском обществе, подробно описывающий хозяйство и традиции горцев, социальную и экономическую политику в Имамате. Только в 1997 г. А.Р. Шихсаидов и Х.А. Омаров, проведя сверку перевода М.-С. Саидова с оригиналом, осуществив дополнительный перевод пропущенных мест и научное комментирование, опубликовали это чрезвычайно интересное сочинение. Текст его был снабжен географическим, именным и терминологическим указателями и факсимиле рукописи [Абдурахман из Газикумуха, 1997].

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