The socialization of natural scientists in Russia in the 18th and first half of the 19th century: The formation of cognitiveinstitutional structures of biological and biomedical sciences

Publication type Article
Status Published
Affiliation: S. I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: S. I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameVoprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki
EditionVolume 39 3

This paper examines the process of socialization of scientists engaged in the research ofliving nature in Russia in the 18th and first half of the 19th century. Our research wasfocused on personalities (practicing physicians, pharmacists, professors at academiesand universities, agronomists, etc.) as well as on the cognitive-institutional structures ofbiological and biomedical sciences (chairs, laboratories, expeditions, botanical gardens,anatomical theatres, museums, etc.). Parallels were drawn with the socialization ofEuropean naturalists in the 16th to 18th century. We have analyzed the mechanisms oflaying the groundwork for the development of Russian science, described differentpatterns of socialization of foreign specialists in Russia, and identified natural-historyinstitutions during the formative period of the 18th century when the foundation waslaid for the stratification of professional scientific activities. In particular, we describedthe elements of European guilds that had been more or less successfully grafted intothe soil of the Russian absolutist monarchy (Academy of Sciences, universities andother educational institutions, scientific and research societies, scientific committeesunder various ministries and departments, etc.). We have outlined the frames and thedisciplinary matrix of biomedical disciplines (botany, zoology, anatomy, physiology,etc.), and depicted the careers of the scientists who made significant contributions tothe development of biological and biomedical sciences in Russia. It is emphasized thatphysicians and pharmacists were predominant in the emerging professional community.Considerable attention is given to the work of natural scientists during and afternumerous expeditions across the Russian Empire and beyond. It is concluded that theprocess of natural scientists’ socialization in Russia may be seen as the formation and change of the system of cognitive-institutional structures in the specific nationalcontext, with its development stages and disciplinary characteristics being specific forRussia. The emergence of these structures reflected both the logic of sciencedevelopment and changes in socio-cultural context of Russian society in the 18th andearly 19th century.

Keywordshistory of the 18th and 19th century science, biology, medicine, socialization, Russia, cognitive and institutional structures, natural scientist, physician, pharmacist, scientific discipline, Academy of Sciences, universities, expeditions, scientific society, scientific community
Publication date11.10.2018
Number of characters1882
Cite   Download pdf To download PDF you should sign in

Price publication: 0

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 1657

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Aleksandrovskaia, O. A., Shirokova, V. A., Romanova, O. S., and Ozerova, N. A. (eds.) (2011) M. V. Lomonosov i akademicheskie ekspeditsii XVIII veka [M. V. Lomonosov and 18th Century Academic Expeditions]. Мoskva: RTSoft.

2. Anfert’eva, A. N. (2002) Iogann Amman v Sankt-Peterburgskoi akademii nauk [Johann Amman at St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences], in: Liuti, I., Meder, E., and Tarkhanova, E. (eds.) Shveitsartsy v Peterburge [The Swiss in St. Petersburg]. Sankt-Peterburg: Nestor-Istoriia, pp. 321–325.

3. Bakkal, S. N. (2017) Doktor Klot-Bei (1793–1868) i ego vklad v kollektsii Zoologicheskogo muzeia Imperatorskoi Akademii nauk v Sankt-Peterburge [Doctor Clot Bey (1793–1868) and His Contributions to the Collections at the Zoological Museum of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg], Istoriko-biologicheskie issledovaniia (Studies on the History of Biology), vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 7–26.

4. Berdyshev, A. P. (1988) Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov – vydaiushchiisia deiatel’ nauki i kul’tury. 1738–1833 [Andrei Timofeyevich Bolotov, an Outstanding Figure in Science and Culture]. Moskva: Nauka.

5. Bogoliubov, A. N. (1984) Robert Guk (1635–1703) [Robert Hooke (1635–1703)]. Moskva. Nauka.

6. Borkin, L. Ia. (2001) Akademicheskie “fizicheskie” ekspeditsii (1768–1775) i stanovlenie gerpetologii v Rossii [“Physical” Academic Expeditions (1768–1775) and the Emergence of Herpetology in Russia], in: Kolchinskii, E. I. (ed.) Russko-nemetskie sviazi v biologii i meditsine [Russian-German Connections in Biology and Medicine]. Sankt-Peterburg: Borei Art, pp. 21–45.

7. Brown, H. (1934) Scientific Organizations in Seventeenth Century France: 1620–1680. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company.

8. Bryce, W. J. (2008) A Botanist’s Paradise: The Establishment of Scientific Botany in Russia in the Eighteenth Century. Swansea: Royal Horticultural Society.

9. Campbell, D. (1926) Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. 1926.

10. Carlino, A. (1999) Books of the Body: Anatomical Ritual and Renaissance Learning. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

11. Cobban, A. B. (1975) The Medieval Universities: Their Development and Organization. London: Methuen.

12. Elina, O. Iu. (2016) K istokam professii botanika v Rossii: o pervykh otechestvennykh travnikakh i gerbariiakh [Towards the Origins of Botanical Profession in Russia: The First Russian Herbals and Herbaria], in: Shustova, Iu. E. (ed.) Materialy XXVIII Mehzdunarodnoi konferentsii “Vspomogatel’nye istoricheskie distsipliny v sovremennom nauchnom znanii”, Moskva, 14–16 aprelia 2016 g. [Materials of the 28th International Conference “Auxiliary Historical Disciplines in Modern Scientific Knowledge”, Moscow, April 14–16, 2016]. Moskva: RGGU–IVI, pp. 211–213.

13. French, R. (1994) William Harvey’s Natural Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

14. French, R. (1999) Dissection and Vivisection in the European Renaissance. Aldershot: Ashgate.

15. Fruton, J. (1972) Molecules and Life. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

16. Gotti, M. (2011) Broadening Shared Knowledge within the Specialized Community in the 17th Century, Revista de lenguas para fines específicos, vol. 17, pp. 121–145.

17. Klestinec, C. (2004) A History of Anatomy Theaters in Sixteenth-Century Padua, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 375–412.

18. Kolchinskii, E. I. (2001) “Printsip osnovatelia” i stanovlenie akademicheskoi biologii [“The Founder Principle” and the Making of Academic Biology], in: Kolchinskii, E. I. (ed.) Russko-nemetskie sviazi v biologii i meditsine [Russian-German Connections in Biology and Medicine]. Sankt-Peterburg: Borei Art, pp. 7–20.

19. Kolchinskii, E. I. (ed.) (2011) Biologiia v Sankt-Peterburge. 1703–2008. Entsiklopedicheskii slovar’ [Biology in St. Petersburg. 1703–2008. An Encyclopedic Dictionary]. Sankt-Peterburg: Nestor-Istoriia.

20. Koroteeva, N. N. (2011) Stanovlenie i razvitie aptechnoi sluzhby v Rossii v XVI – nachale XX vv.: avtoreferat dis. … d-ra ist. nauk [Emergence and Development of Pharmacy Service in Russia from the 16th to Early 20th Century. Thesis for the Doctor of Historical Sciences Degree]. Kursk.

21. Lavrov, A. S. (2010) Koldovstvo i religiia v Rossii, 1700–1740 gg. [Witchcraft and Religion in Russia, 1700–1740]. Moskva: Drevlekhranilishche.

22. Lindberg, D. C. (1992) The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B. C. to A. D. 1450. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

23. Lindberg, D. C. (2007) Medieval Medicine and Natural History. The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, Prehistory to A. D. 1450. 2nd ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

24. Lipskii, V. I. (1908) Gerbarii Imperatorskogo S.-Peterburgskogo botanicheskogo sada (1823–1908) [Herbaria of the Imperial St. Petersburg Botanical Garden (1823–1908)]. Yur’ev: Tipografiia K. Mattisena.

25. Lloyd, G. E. R. (1979) Magic Reason and Experience: Studies in the Origin and Development of Greek Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

26. Mikulinskii, S. R. (ed.) (1972) Istoria biologii s drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei [History of Biology from Ancient Times to This Day]. Moskva: Nauka.

27. Mochul’skii, Viktor Ivanovich (1897), in: Entsiklopedicheskii slovar’ Brokgauza i Efrona [Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary], vol. 20, pp. 88–89.

28. Novlianskaia, M. G. (1970) Daniil Gotlib Messershmidt i ego raboty po issedovaniiu Sibiri [Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt and His Explorations of Siberia]. Leningrad: Nauka.

29. Nutton, V., Conrad, L. I., Neve, M., Porter, R., and Wear, A. (1995) The Western Medical Tradition: 800 B. C. – 1800 A. D. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

30. Oliver, F. W. (ed.) (1913) Makers of British Botany: A Collection of Biographies by Living Botanists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

31. Park, K. (1992) Medicine and Society in Medieval Europe, 500–1500, in: Wear, A. (ed.) Medicine in Society: Historical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 59–90.

32. Pekarskii, P. P. (1870) Istoria imperatorskoi Akademii nauk v Peterburge [The History of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg]. Sankt-Peterburg: Tipografiia Imperatorskoi Akademii nauk.

33. Pogodin, S. A., and Raskin, N. M. (1969) German Burgave [Herman Boerhaave], Khimiia i zhizn’, no. 11, pp. 71–75.

34. Prisenko, G. P. (1990) Prosvetitel’ V. A. Levshin [The Enlightener V. A. Levshin]. Tula: Priokskoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo.

35. Raven, Ch. E. (1986) John Ray, Naturalist: His Life and Works. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

36. Rüegg, W. (ed.) (1996) A History of the University in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, vol. 2 (de Ridder-Symoens, H. (ed.) Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500–1800).

37. Shcherbakova, A. A. (1979) Istoria botaniki v Rossii do 60-kh gg. XIX v. [The History of Botany in Russia till the 1860s]. Novosibirsk: Nauka.

38. Shober, Gottlib [Schober, Gottlieb] (1911), in: Russkii biografichesrii slovar’ [The Russian Biographical Dictionary]. Sankt-Peterburg: Tipografiia Glavnogo upravleniia udelov, p. 359.

39. Significant Scots. Robert Morison,

40. Sigrist, R., and Widmer, E. D. (2011) Training Links and Transmission of Knowledge in 18th Century Botany: a Social Network Analysis, Revista hispana para el análisis de redes sociales, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 347–387.

41. Skliarova, E. K., and Zharov, L. V. (2014) Istoria meditsiny [History of Medicine]. Rostov-na-Donu: Feniks.

42. Sytin, A. K. (2002) Shveitsarskie idei o flore v russkoi botanike [Swiss Ideas about the Flora in Russian Botany], in: Liuti, I., Meder, E., and Tarkhanova, E. (eds.) Shveitsartsy v Peterburge [The Swiss in St. Petersburg]. Sankt-Peterburg: Nestor-Istoriia, pp. 301–308.

43. Sytin, A. K. (2014) Botanik Petr Simon Pallas [The Botanist Peter Simon Pallas]. Moskva: Tovarishchestvo nauchnykh izdanii KMK.

44. Treviranus, G. R. (1802) Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur für Naturforscher und Aerzte. Göttingen: Johann Friedrich Röwer, 1802, vol. 1.

45. Volkov, V. A., and Kulikova, M. V. (2003) Moskovskie professora XVIII – nachala XX vv. Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki [Moscow’s Professors from the 18th to Early 20th Century. Natural and Technical Sciences]. Moskva: Ianus-K.

46. Volkov, V. A., and Kulikova, M. V. (2003) Rossiiskaia professura. XVIII – nachala XX vv. Biologicheskie i mediko-biologicheskie nauki. Biograficheskii slovar’ [Russian Professors. 18th to Early 20th Century. Biological and Biomedical Sciences. A Biographic Dictionary]. Sankt-Peterburg: RKhGU.

47. Zhmud’, L. Ia. (1994) Nauka, filosophiia i religiia v rannem pifagoreistve [Science, Philosophy, and Religion in Early Pythagoreanism]. Sankt-Peterburg: Aleteia.

Additional sources and materials


Система Orphus