Directors of the 1930th Heavy Industry Enterprises: Dynamics in a Socio- Professional Group

Publication type Article
Status Published
Occupation: Professor
Affiliation: Ural Institute of Institute of management – branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
Address: 620990, Russian Federation, Yekaterinburg, st. 8 Marta, 66
Journal nameSotsiologicheskie issledovaniya
EditionIssue 7

In the paper, based on the historical literature, statistical records on the industrial management personnel in 1929, 1934 and 1936, the All-Union meetings of executives in1931-1936, an attempt is made to offer a social portrait of the professional group of directors of USSR major enterprises during the first five-year plans. Comparative statistical method allowed to compare social characteristics of the entire professional group of directors ‒ and its core, "elite" of 28 directors of the largest heavy industry enterprises elected to the Council under the People's Commissar of Heavy Industry. If the analysis of the different social characteristics of the entire professional group of directors and its core allowed to identify quantitative indicators contributing to the career success of these executives, analysis of the content of the speeches by managers at the All-Union meetings in 1931 and 1934, and at the Councils under the People's Commissar of Heavy Industry in 1935 and 1936 allowed to identify specific features of those "production commanders" who achieved most significant successes. It is found that during the first five-year plans, the "social elevator" brought up directors mainly with professional training; experiencedin managing during the NEP years, linked to Bolshevik Party; able to launch any production "from the scratch". The life of successful directors during the first five-year plans included ability to negotiate with the officials of the People's Commissariats on the terms, volumes and quality parameters of the products to be manufactured; ability to use quasi-market relationships, primarily limited commodity-money relations.

Keywordsdirectors, industrial enterprises, party, industrialization, five year plans, Soviet industries
AcknowledgmentAuthor is sincerely grateful to journal’s anonymous reviewers for valuable criticism and advice.
Publication date21.09.2021
Number of characters34908
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 752

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Alkatsev D.K. (1975) Avraamiy Zavenyagin. An essay on life and work. Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarskoye kn. izd-vo. (In Russ.)

2. Beilin A.E. (1935) Personnel of USSR Specialists. Moscow: Soyuzorguchet. (In Russ.)

3. Bernikovskaya M.B., Nosova A.D. (1963) Working director: Documentary story. Chelyabinsk: Chelyabinskoye kn. izd-vo. (In Russ.).

4. Bespalova V.A. (2018) Narkom Bruskin: Memory of the heart. St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya. (In Russ.)

5. Bogunenko N. (2005) Muzrukov. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, ZhZL. (In Russ.).

6. Cadres of heavy industry in numbers. (1936) Moscow: Sektor obshchikh izd. ONTI NKP. (In Russ.)

7. Feldman M.A. (2015) Stakhanov movement: place in the mythical and real pre - Soviet history. Voprosy istorii [Questions of history]. No. 8: 3–19. (In Russ.)

8. Feldman M.A. (2020) Nominees of 1917–1941: problematizing upward mobility. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 6: 94–102. (In Russ.)

9. Included in the Operation. Mass Terror in the Kama Region in 1937–1938. (2006) Moscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)

10. Khavin A.F. (1966) Captains of Soviet industry. Voprosy istorii [Questions of history] No. 5: 3–14. (In Russ.) (In Russ.)

11. Khlevnyuk O.V. (1996). Politburo. Mechanisms of political power in the 30s. Moscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)

12. Khlevnyuk O.V. (2010) The Owner. Stalin and the Establishment of the Stalinist Dictatorship. Moscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)

13. Khlevnyuk O.V. (2017). Stalinist period of Soviet history. Historical trends and unsolved problems. Ural'skij istoricheskij vestnik [Ural Historical Bulletin]. No. (17) 3: 75. (In Russ.)

14. Kucher V. N. (2004) The formation of Directors of the metallurgical industry in the late 20's-early 50-ies of XX century (On materials of the Magnitogorsk metallurgical combine). Autoref. dis. ... cand. istor. nauk.). Moscow. (In Russ.)

15. Leibovich O. L. (2017) Hunting for the red director. Perm: Titul. (In Russ.)

16. Leontieva T. К. (1979) Likhachev. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya (ZhZL series). (In Russ.)

17. Markevich A.M. (2004) Was the Soviet economy planned? Planning in drugs in the 1930s. In: Economic History: Yearbook. 2003. Moscow: 20–55. (In Russ.)

18. Meeting of senior workers of heavy industry 20-22 September 1934. (1935). Verbatim report. Moscow: ONTI. (In Russ.)

19. New cadres of heavy industry (1930-1933). (1934). Moscow: NKTP. (In Russ.)

20. Osokina E. A. (2011). On social immunity or a critical view of the concept of passive (everyday) resistance. In: The history of Stalinism: results and problems of study. Moscow: ROSSPEN: 387–406. (In Russ.)

21. Pavlov K. S. (2010). Social appearance of the director's corps of Soviet metallurgical plants in the 1930s-1940s. (based on the materials of the Chelyabinsk region). Autoref. dis. ... cand. history of sciences. Chelyabinsk. (In Russ.)

22. Shattenberg S. (2011) Engineers of Stalin. Life between technology and terror in the 1930s. Moscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)

23. Shpotov B.M. (2012). American Business and the USSR in the 1920s-1930s. Moscow: Librokom.

24. Studer B., Uifrid B. (2011) Stalin’s party cadres. Identification practice and discourses in the Soviet Union of the 1930s. Moscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)

25. The Communist party of the Soviet Union in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee (1898-1986) (1984). Moscow: Politizdat. Vol. 4. 1926–1929. (In Russ.)

26. The composition of the leading workers and specialists of the Union of the USSR. (1936). Moscow: TSUNKHU Gosplana SSSR.V/o Soyuzorguchet. (In Russ.)

27. The Council under the People's Commissar of Heavy Industry of the USSR. (First Plenum). (1935). Moscow: ONTI NKTP. (In Russ.)

28. The Council under the People's Commissar of Heavy Industry of the USSR. (Second Plenum). 25-29 June 1936. (1936) Moscow: ONTI NKTP. (In Russ.)

29. The first All-Union Conference of Workers of Socialist Industry. Verbatim report from January 30 to February 5, 1931. (1931) Moscow: Ogiz. Gos. sots.-ekon. izd-vo. (In Russ.)

Система Orphus