Fatty acids and antimicrobal properties of red table wine

 
PIIS250026270000673-5-1
DOI10.31857/S250026270000673-5
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Prikaspijskij institut biologicheskix resursov Dagestanskogo nauchnogo centra RAN
Address: Russian Federation, Maxachkala
Affiliation: Prikaspijskij institut biologicheskix resursov Dagestanskogo nauchnogo centra RAN
Address: Russian Federation, Maxachkala
Affiliation: Prikaspijskij institut biologicheskix resursov Dagestanskogo nauchnogo centra RAN
Address: Russian Federation, Maxachkala
Affiliation: Prikaspijskij institut biologicheskix resursov Dagestanskogo nauchnogo centra RAN
Address: Russian Federation, Maxachkala
Affiliation: Prikaspijskij institut biologicheskix resursov Dagestanskogo nauchnogo centra RAN
Address: Russian Federation, Maxachkala
Affiliation: Prikaspijskij institut biologicheskix resursov Dagestanskogo nauchnogo centra RAN
Address: Russian Federation, Maxachkala
Affiliation: Prikaspijskij institut biologicheskix resursov Dagestanskogo nauchnogo centra RAN
Address: Russian Federation, Maxachkala
Journal nameRossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka
EditionNumber 5
Pages72-77
Abstract

Presents research findings on fatty acids and antibacterial properties of red wine, which is known for its unique physiological effect on human body. Subjects of the research were red table wines (the vintage of 2016) produced at the Derbent sparkling wine factory from grapes gathered in the Derbent Region of Daghestan Republic. Wines were produced from Cabernet grape variety using selective Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-4270 (experiment) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Derbent-19 (control). Fatty acids were studied by gas-liquid chromatography; antibacterial properties against gram-positive bacteria were studied by a standard agar diffusion technique. 28 fat acids (C10-C22) were identified in all samples of wine. A test sample was distinct in decreasing, unwanted to living organisms, saturated fatty acids by 8,63 % as the factor of nutrition, which increases the level of cholesterin and atherogenic lipoprotein. There was an increase by 18,67 % in the total quantity of unsaturated fatty acids due to the dominance of С18:2, С18:2ω-6, С24:1ω-9. We found the double predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated by 9,56 %, and polyenoic fatty acids by 12,09 %, which contribute to the composition of wine flavor. The quantity of ω-6 acids is 42,12 % higher, mainly, owing to linoleic acid C18:2ω-6 (by 16,48 %) and γ-linolenic C18:3ω-6 (almost by a factor of 4). It was revealed a significant content of ω-3 acids (almost by a factor of 11): linoleic C18:3ω-3, eicosapentaenoic C20:5ω-3, docosahexaenoic C22:6ω-3 acids, which improve lipid metabolism and influence positively on immune system. In general, a total content of ω-9 acids was sufficiently high in both samples of wine due to the predominance of oleinic acid C18:1ω-9. The experimental red table wine is found to possess antibacterial properties against bacteria Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, what determined to the constituent conditions of wine, including polyphenolic and antioxidant compounds, providing improved biochemical and nutrient properties of the product.

 

KeywordsRed table wine, fatty acids, antibacterial activity
Received21.08.2018
Publication date14.11.2018
Number of characters14892
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1 С древних времен красное вино использовали в качестве антисептика и анальгетика для лечения дерматологических заболеваний и расстройства пищеварения. Известен "французский парадокс", который связывают с употреблением вина, обладающего противовоспалительными и антиоксидантными свойствами, а также кардиозащитным действием при ишемической болезни миокарда [1-3]. Вино оказывает благоприятное физиологическое воздействие на организм человека, в том числе обогащает его жирными кислотами, обеспечивая высокий уровень их в эритроцитах и тромбоцитах крови, обладает уникальным антисклеротическим действием [4], приводит к снижению окислительного стресса при сахарном диабете и осмотической хрупкости эритроцитов [5].
2 Поскольку вино представляет собой сложную смесь соединений, многие из которых находятся в очень низких концентрациях, предполагают, что эффективность вина в качестве антибактериального агента связана фактически не с отдельными комбинациями этанола, органических кислот, фенолов, ресвератрола, кислым рН, а синергическим воздействием всех компонентов [6].
3 Известны исследования жирных кислот в коммерческих красных винах [7-9]. Они влияют на образование летучих ароматических метаболитов в вине, включая эфиры, ацетат, высшие спирты [10]. Отмечено особое свойство этиловых эфиров жирных кислот в образовании летучих соединений аромата вина даже на субсенсорном пороговом уровне [11-13]. Жирные кислоты демонстрируют широкий спектр антимикробного действия на микобактерии, археи, нитевидные грибы, дрожжи, вирусы, простейшие и эукариотические водоросли [14-16].
4 В многочисленных исследованиях приведены антибактериальные свойства вина против патогенных бактерий Bacillus cereus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, и Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella sonnei, Helicobacter pylori и Escherichia coli, Streptococcus enteritidis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Cаndida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis и др. [17-23]. Показано употребление красного вина во время вспышек пищевых инфекций, таких как сальмонеллез и гепатит, радиационных катастроф, что подтверждают современные исследования [23, 24].
5 Климатические условия региона и географическое происхождение винограда являются важным фактором, воздействующим на физиолого-биохимические показатели красного столового вина. В связи с этим представляют интерес проведенные впервые исследования содержания жирных кислот и антибактериальных свойств красного вина из винограда сорта Каберне, произрастающего на территории Дербентского района Республики Дагестан. Одно из существенных качеств этого сорта – создание уникальных вин с кондициями, которые способствуют сохранению микробиологической стойкости и качественных показателей длительное время.

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