Fortified Settlements of Demidovka and Vyazovenki in the Smolensk Land: Hierarchy, Chronology and Cultural Attribution

 
PIIS086960630014370-6-1
DOI10.31857/S086960630014370-6
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: National Research Centre
Address: France
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, RAS
Address: Institute of Archaeology, RAS
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, RAS
Address: Institute of Archaeology, RAS
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, RAS
Address: Institute of Archaeology, RAS
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: Smolensk Regional Centre for the Protection and Use of Historical and Cultural Heritage Sites
Address: Russian Federation, Smolensk
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameRossiiskaia arkheologiia
Edition
Pages192-210
Abstract

The article examines finds from two fortified settlements located near Smolensk. It provides new radiocarbon dates that prove the demise of the fortified settlement of Demidovka at the turn of the 5/6th century AD. The analysis of the distribution of prestigious silver items and armament on the sites of the “Demidovka circle” and the presence of a large long house provide grounds for an assumption about the central position of this settlement in the Smolensk district and the presence of a “German component” in it. The data of spore-pollen analysis are used for the reconstruction of the landscape surrounding the fortified settlement. The authors suggest that in the late period when militarized “elite” resided in the settlement its vicinity was used for grazing. As a result of the study, a hypothesis is proposed that the fortified settlements of Demidovka (the 3rd–5th centuries) and Vyazovenki (the 6th–7th centuries) were centers of power in the Smolensk land during the two periods of time preceding the transition of this function to Smolensk (Cathedral Hill) and Gnezdovo.

Keywordsthe fortified settlement of Demidovka, buckles, Germans, Slavs, the Kolochin culture, spore-pollen analysis, silver jewelry
AcknowledgmentThe article was prepared with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research within the framework of Research Project No. 20-09-00171. This article is a translation of: Krenke N.A., Kazansky M.M., Lopatin N.V., Ganichev K.A., Ershov I.N., Ershova E.G., Modestov F.E., Raeva V.A. 2021. The fortified settlements of Demidovka and Vyazovenki in Smolensk land: hierarchy, chronology and cultural attribution. Rossiiskaia arkheologiia, 1, pp. 102–121. DOI: 10.31857/S086960630013711-1.
Received26.03.2021
Publication date26.03.2021
Number of characters56263
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1 In 2017–2019, the authors of this article began new studies of the fortified settlements of Demidovka and Vyazovenki, located in the vicinity of Smolensk. Both sites (more precisely, their upper horizons) are attributed to the Tushemlin archaeological culture by the classic of Smolensk archeology prof. Schmidt. Taking into account the continuing controversial nature of the cultural attribution of the antiquities of the present-day Smolensk land, the authors attribute these settlements to a wide range of types of Tushemli and Kolochin. A ceramic set is considered to be most responsible for cultural attribution, while Demidovka is one of the most important cultural standards of its time.
2 The research of the fortified settlement of Demidovka was initiated by Liavdanskii1. Then the site of this fortified settlement was almost completely excavated by Schmidt in 1957, 1961–1967. In 2004, a small excavation site was studied by Modestov in the fortified settlement of Vyazovenki. 1. Liavdanskii A.N., 1924. Materialy dlia arkheologicheskoi karty Smolenskoi gubernii [Materials for the archaeological map of Smolensk Province] // Trudy smolenskikh gosudarstvennykh muzeev [Research works of Smolensk state museums]. Issue 1. Smolensk, 1924. P. 127–184. (In Russ.)
3 The materials of Demidovka were partially introduced into scientific circulation2, and the materials of the fortified settlement of Vyazovenki have not been previously published. Despite the incompleteness of the published materials of Demidovka, due to their paramount importance, researchers have repeatedly been involved in discussing the problems of interaction of different ethnic (including Central European, Germanic, Slavic) cultural traditions in the forest zone during the era of migration period3. The relevance of preparing a monographic publication about Demidovka was emphasized by Schmidt (the interview at the Stuff of the IA RAS Smolensk expedition in Smolensk on October 2, 2014), as well as by Oblomskii, who systematically used the materials of this site when characterizing the Kolochin culture4. 2. Ambroz A.K. Iuzhnye khudozhestvennye sviazi naseleniia Verkhnego Podneprov'ia v VI v. [Southern artistic ties of the of the Upper Dnieper population in the 6th century] // Kukharenko Yu.V. (Ed.), Drevnie slavyane i ikh sosedi [Ancient Slavs and their neighbours]. Moskva, 1970. P. 70–74. (In Russ.); Schmidt E.A. Nekotorye arkheologicheskie pamiatniki Smolenshchiny vtoroi poloviny I tys. n.e. [Some archaeological sites of the Smolensk land of the second half of the 1st millennium AD] // Rybakov B.A. (Ed.), Slaviane nakanune obrazovaniia Kievskoi Rusi [Slavs on the eve of the formation of Kievan Rus]. Moskva, 1963. P. 51–67. (In Russ.); Schmidt E.A. O kul'ture gorodishch-ubezhishch levoberezhnoi Smolenshchiny [About the culture of refuge fortified settlements in the left-bank Smolensk land] // Kukharenko Yu.V. (Ed.), Drevnie slaviane i ikh sosedi [Ancient Slavs and their neighbours]. Moskva, 1970. P. 63–69. (In Russ.); Schmidt E.A. Tushemlinskaia kul'tura [The Tushemlya culture]. Smolensk, 2003. (In Russ.)

3. Akhmedov I.R., Kazanskii M.M. Posle Attily. Kievskii klad i ego kul'turno-istoricheskii kontekst [After Attila. The Kiev hoard and its cultural and historical context] // Goryunova V.M., Shcheglova O.A. (Eds.), Kul'turnye transformatsii i vzaimovliianiia v Dneprovskom regione na iskhode rimskogo vremeni i v rannem Srednevekov'e [Cultural transformations and mutual influences in the Dnieper region at the end of Roman period and in the early Middle Ages]. Sankt-Peterburg, 2004. P. 168–202. (In Russ.); Akhmedov I.R. Nekotorye indikatory kul'turnykh vzaimodeistvii v drevnostiakh riazano-okskikh finnov vtoroi poloviny V – nachala VI v. [Some indicators of cultural interactions in antiquities of the Ryazan-Oka Finns of the second half of the 5th–early 6th century] // Oblomskii A.M. (Ed.), Problemy vzaimodeistviia naseleniia Vostochnoi Evropy v epokhu Velikogo pereseleniia narodov [Issues of interaction between the population of Eastern Europe in the Migration Period]. Moskva, 2014. P. 138–177. (In Russ.); Kazanskii M.M. Prestizhnye nakhodki i tsentry vlasti postgunskogo vremeni v Podneprov'e [Prestigious finds and post-Hunnic centres of power power in the Dnieper region] // Stratum plus. 2018. No. 4. P. 83–118. (In Russ.)

4. Oblomskii A.M. Kolochinskaia kul'tura [The Kolochin culture] // Oblomskii A.M., Islanova I.V. (Eds.), Rannesrednevekovye drevnosti lesnoi zony Vostochnoi Evropy V–VII vv. [Early medieval antiquities from the forest zone of Eastern Europe of the 5th–7th centuries]. Moskva, 2016. P. 10–113. (In Russ.)
4 The purpose of this article is to present materials that are still few in number, obtained during the initial stage of exploration of the immediate vicinity of these two fortified settlements, and to outline new lines of research.
5 The three issues in the title of the article are debatable, but only two of them were most actively developed: on the cultural attribution and chronology of the sites of the Smolensk land in the era of migration period5. 5. See the main historiography in Lopatin N.V. The Tushemlya and Kolochin cultures // Rodinkova V.E., Rumyantseva O.S. (Eds.), Evropa ot Latena do Srednevekov'ya: varvarskiy mir i rozhdenie slavyanskikh kul'tur: K 60-letiyu A.M. Oblomskogo [Europe from La Tène to the Middle Ages: the barbaric world and the birth of Slavic cultures: To the 60th anniversary of A.M. Oblomsky]. Moskva, 2017. P. 63–69. (In Russ.); Furas'ev A.G. Demidovka i Uzmen'. “Netraditsionnyi vzgliad” na “klassicheskie” pamiatniki [Demidovka and Uzmen. “An unconventional view” of the “classical” sites] // Belarus' u sisteme eўrapeyskikh kul'turnykh suvyazyaў [Belarus in the framework of European cultural ties]. Minsk, 1997. P. 33–38. (In Russ.); Furas'ev A.G. O datirovke i proiskhozhdenii odnoi gruppy priazhek epokhi velikogo pereseleniia narodov [On the dating and origin of one group of buckles of the Great Migration period] // Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha [Transactions of the State Hermitage Museum]. No. LIX. Sankt-Peterburg, 2001. P. 24–27. (In Russ.)
6 The first issue was previously little-discussed – if it is possible to identify a certain hierarchy among the fortified settlements of the Smolensk land in the middle – third quarter of the 1st millennium AD, which would be manifested in their size, features of fortification, the structure of monuments, the composition of finds, the degree of anthropogenic landscape restructuring.
7

Table 1. Data on fortified settlements of the middle of 1st millennium AD in the Western Smolensk land and in Eastern Belarus

Number*, name

Size

Excavation area (m2) (excavation author and period)**

Status finds

Smolensk Region

1 (3). Vyazovenka

90×48+ancient settlement

3 (Krenke, 2017); 16 (Modestov, 2004)

Silver hryvnia,

brooch rimmed with bird heads

2 (5). Lestrovka

50×40

 

 

3 (6). Rachevskoye

25×15

 

 

4 (19). Abramkovo

40×12

 

 

5 (32). Bliznaki

42×40

400 (Schmidt, 1970–1973)

Silver bracelet, spears, arrows, bits, spurs

6 (35). Bogoroditskoye

47×34 + 1 ancientsettlement (200×30)

96 (Modestov, 1989); 1 (Krenke, 2019)

 

7 (57). Volokovaya

22×18

 

 

8 (64). Vysokoye

60×20

 

 

9 (79). Gnezdovo

115×98

2,500 (Andreev, Avdusin, Pushkina, 1940–2014)

 

10 (81). Demidovka

50×30 + ancientsettlement

1,076 (Schmidt)

Silver belt, rings, ingot, spears, spurs

11 (92). Ermaki

32×28

 

 

12 (106). Znamenka (Voishchina/Tserkovishche)

50×31

1,052 (Sedov)

Silver pectoral

13 (168). Kushlyanshchina

28×26

 

 

14 (180). Lakhteevo

60×25

Liavdanskii

 

15 (182). Lubnia

24×25

 

 

16 (200). Noviye Bateki

48×23

850 (Schmidt, 1959, 1960)

 

17 (211). Ray

Diameter of 24 m

 

 

18 (235). Staroye Kuprino

19×15

 

 

19 (338). Boltutino

60×45

 

 

20 (424). Akatovo

20×16 16×12 16×13 + ancient settlement

560 (Schmidt, 1958–1960)

 

21 (470). Klyuch

22×13

 

 

22 (660). Bokhot

45×40

 

 

23 (666). Yegorye

Diameter of 25 m

 

 

24 (680). Moshchinovo

50×40

 

 

25 (681). Nazimki

50×40

 

 

26 (682). Perepechino

35×25

 

 

27 (685). Ray

40×60

 

 

28 (712) Kovali

30×8 (destroyed)

 

 

29 (718). Fortified settlement of Mikulino 1

67×33 + ancient settlement

32 (Schmidt, 1980)

 

30 (738). Samsontsy

45×38

514 (Schmidt, 1980–1985)

Spear

31 (744). Khotezh

48×43

 

 

32 (1023). Verkhniye Nemykary

29×18

 

 

33 (1034). Gorodok

32×26

104 (Tret'iakov)

 

34 (1055). Kolychevo

35×30

20 (–“–)

 

35 (1072). Mokryadino (Tushemlya)

35×32

750 (–“–)

Spear

36 (1108). Pokrovskoye (Kovsharovskoye)

60×70

100 (Liavdanskii)

 

37 (1114). Prudky 1

35×27

16 (Tret'iakov)

 

38 (1137). GlushitsaSloboda

20×17

395 (Tret'iakov)

 

39 (1175). Bogdanovo

45×35

900 (Schmidt, 1976–1978)

 

40 (1259). Kholmets

48×35

900 (Tret'iakov, Е.A. Schmidt)

 

41 (1438). Elovtsy

35×27

 

 

42 (225). Smolino

28×11 15×8

 

 

43 (1592). Kolotovshchina 1

 

 

 

Belarus

 

 

 

44. Vezhki

68×41 + ancient settlement

320 (Kolosovskii)

Silver temple and triangular pendants; ring; spear, arrows, spur

45. Nikodimovo

120×30

1,058 (Sedin, 1986–2004)

Silver bracelet, belt set with silver inlay

46. Kiseli

42×32

168 (Levko, 1988, 1989)

 

47. Cherkasovo

55×45

65 (Dubinskii, 1928); 60 (Levko, 1989)

 

48. Krichev (GorodetsMountain)

50×25 (destroyed)

214 (Miatselskii)

 

49. Vitebsk

 

14,000 (Bubenko, Levko)

 

50. Mogilev (Zmeevka)

55×30

44 (Marzaliuk, 2008)

 

 

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