The fortified settlements of Demidovka and Vyazovenki in Smolensk land: hierarchy, chronology and cultural attribution

 
PIIS086960630013711-1-1
DOI10.31857/S086960630013711-1
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: National Research Centre
Address: France
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, RAS
Address: Russian Federation
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: 4Smolensk Regional Centre for the Protection and Use of Historical and Cultural Heritage Sites
Address: Smolensk
Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology RAS
Address: Moscow, Russia
Journal nameRossiiskaia arkheologiia
EditionIssue 1
Pages102-121
Abstract

The article examines finds from two fortified settlements located near Smolensk. New radiocarbon dates are given that prove the demise of the fortified settlement of Demidovka at the turn of the 5th–6th centuries AD. The analysis of the distribution of prestigious silver items and armament on the sites of the “Demidovka circle” and the presence of a large long house provide grounds for an assumption about the central position of this settlement in Smolensk district and the presence of a “German component” in it. The data of spore-pollen analysis are used for the reconstruction of the landscape surrounding the fortified settlement. The authors suggest that in the late period when militarized “elite” resided in the settlement its vicinity was used for grazing. As a result of the study, a hypothesis is proposed that the fortified settlements of Demidovka (the 3rd–4th centuries) and Vyazovenki (the 6th–7th centuries) were centers of power in Smolensk land during the two periods of time preceding the transition of this function to Smolensk (Cathedral Hill) and Gnezdovo.

Keywordsthe fortified settlement of Demidovka, buckles, Germans, Slavs, the Kolochin culture, spore-pollen analysis, silver jewelry
AcknowledgmentThe article was prepared with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research within the framework of research project No. 20-09-00171.
Received21.02.2020
Publication date09.03.2021
Number of characters26017
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1 В 2017–2019 гг. авторы данной статьи приступили к новым исследованиям городищ Демидовка и Вязовеньки, расположенных в окрестностях Смоленска. Оба памятника (точнее, их верхние горизонты) отнесены классиком археологии Смоленщины Е.А. Шмидтом к тушемлинской археологической культуре. С учетом сохраняющейся дискуссионности культурной атрибуции древностей Смоленщины этой эпохи, мы относим эти городища к широкому кругу типов Тушемли и Колочина. Если считать керамический набор в наибольшей степени ответственным за культурную атрибуцию, то Демидовка является одним из важнейших эталонов культуры своего времени.
2 Начало исследованиям городища Демидовка положено А.Н. Лявданским (1924. Табл. 37). Затем площадка этого городища почти полностью раскопана Е.А. Шмидтом в 1957, 1961–1967 гг. На городище Вязовеньки в 2004 г. изучен небольшой раскоп Ф.Э. Модестовым.
3 Материалы Демидовки частично введены в научный оборот (Абмроз, 1970; Шмидт, 1963, 1970, 2003), а материалы городище Вязовеньки ранее не публиковались. Несмотря на неполноту публикации материалов Демидовки они, ввиду их чрезвычайной важности, неоднократно привлекались исследователями при обсуждении проблем взаимодействия разноэтничных (в том числе центральноевропейских, германских, славянских) культурных традиций в лесной зоне в эпоху переселения народов (Ахмедов, Казанский, 2004; Ахмедов, 2014; Казанский, 2018). Актуальность подготовки монографической публикации Демидовки подчеркивалась самим Е.А. Шмидтом (интервью на базе Смоленской экспедиции ИА РАН в Смоленске 2 октября 2014 г.), а также А.М. Обломским, который планомерно использовал материалы этого памятника при характеристике колочинской культуры (Обломский, 2016).
4 Цель настоящей статьи – представить пока еще немногочисленные материалы, полученные в ходе начального этапа разведок ближайших окрестностей этих двух городищ, и обозначить новые направления исследований.
5 Три вопроса, вынесенные в заголовок статьи, дискуссионные, но наиболее активно разрабатывались лишь два из них: о культурной атрибуции и хронологии памятников Смоленщины эпохи переселения народов (основную историографию см. Лопатин, 2017; Фурасьев, 1997, 2001).
6 Начнем с вопроса, ранее мало обсуждавшегося, – можно ли среди городищ Смоленщины середины–третьей четверти I тыс. н.э. выделить некоторую иерархию, которая бы проявлялась в их размерах, особенностях фортификации, структуре памятников, составе находок, степени антропогенной перестройки ландшафта.
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Кренке_табл_1

Таблица 1. Данные о городищах середины I тыс. н.э. на Западной Смоленщине и в Восточной Белоруссии Table 1. Data on fortified settlements of the middle 1st millennium AD in Western Smolensk land and in Eastern Belarus Примечание. *В скобках дан номер по: Археологическая карта…, 1997; **Годы раскопок или их площадь не указаны, если об этом нет информации.

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image1

Рис. 1. Карта городищ V–VII вв. н.э. «круга Демидовки», нумерация соответствует табл. 1; на врезке – район Смоленска. Fig. 1. Map of fortified settlements of the 5th–7th centuries AD belonging to the “Demidovka circle”, numbering corresponds to Table 1; the inset shows Smolensk district

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При определении пространственно-хронологических рамок исследования был применен следующий подход. Учитывались городища, где исследователи выделяли материалы середины–третьей четверти I тыс. н.э. (обычно они обозначались в литературе терминами «тушемлинская» или «колочинская» культуры). Географические рамки – это округа городища Демидовка с радиусом около 100 км, за пределами очерченной окружности памятники на карту не наносились (рис. 1).

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