Heterochronicity of dialectic thinking development in preschool 5-7-years-old children

Publication type Article
Status Published
Occupation: Professor of Department of psychology of education and pedagogy of the faculty of psychology
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Moscow, Mokhovaya str., 11/9
Occupation: Associate Professor, Department of Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
Address: Mokhovaya st., 11, building 9
Occupation: Junior researcher of Department of psychology of education and pedagogy of the faculty of psychology
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Mokhovaya st., 11, building 9
Occupation: Scientific Researcher of Department of psychology of education and pedagogy of the faculty of psychology
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Mokhovaya st., 11, building 9
Journal namePsikhologicheskii zhurnal
EditionVolume 42 issue 4

Structural-dialectical psychology is aimed at developing the ability to see the space of possibilities in uncertain situations, overcome contradictions and think creatively through the improvement of dialectical thought processes. The aim of the study was to identify the features of the development of dialectical thinking in children aged 5-7 years. We assumed that there are differences in the success of solving typical dialectical tasks aimed at creating a creative product, overcoming contradictions and understanding development processes. These differences may be related to gender and age of older preschool children. The study used methods for assessing the success of dialectical mental actions. The tool “Drawing an unusual tree” allows you to evaluate the child's ability to solve a creative problem. The tool “Cycles” evaluates the child's ability to understand the simplest developmental processes and apply dialectical thinking actions: seriation, transformation, and conversion. The tool “What can be simultaneously?” it is aimed at assessing the ability to overcome contradictions. The solution of this type of problem involves the use of a dialectical mental action of mediation. At the same time, we assumed that the results of all the methods will be positively related to each other and the age of children. The study involved 308 children (156 boys and 154 girls) aged 5 years to 7 years 5 months. During the testing, data were obtained that indicate the adequacy of the use of dialectical methods for the diagnosis of children in older preschool age. At the same time, gender differences were found: girls perform the “Cycles” method more successfully (t=-2.401; p=0.017), and boys cope better with the tasks of the “What can be at the same time?” (t=1.879; p=0.046). Standards were developed separately for boys and girls using these methods. Age differences in the implementation of the tool “Drawing an unusual tree” were revealed in children aged 5-6 and 6-7 years (χ2=5.860 at p=0.043, VCramer’s effect strength is 0.139). The results obtained when performing various methods for assessing the development of dialectical thinking by preschoolers indicate, on the one hand, the heterochronicity of its development, and on the other hand, the relationship between the levels of development of some individual components of this thinking

Keywordsthinking of preschool children, structural-dialectical approach, dialectical thinking, dialectical thinking actions, dialectical task, contradictions
AcknowledgmentThe study was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Science Foundation (RSF) in the framework of the scientific project No. 19-18-00521
Publication date14.08.2021
Number of characters36370
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