Circumplex model of emotional display rules: a cross-cultural study

Publication type Article
Status Published
Occupation: Senior research associate of faculty of psychology
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Moscow, Moscow, Mokhovaya st., 11/ 9, Russia
Occupation: Deputy head of International Laboratory of Positive Psychology of Personality and Motivation
Affiliation: National Research University Higher School of Economics
Address: 20 Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow 101000, Russian Federation
Journal namePsikhologicheskii zhurnal
EditionVolume 41 Issue 2

The research project aimed to investigate the associations of cultural values (collectivism and individualism) with emotional expression rules in participants from two cultures, Russia (N = 228, aged 17 to 29, 68.9% female) and Azerbaijan (N = 196, aged 17 to 27, 69.9% female). Based on multidimensional scaling of the DRAI by D. Matsumoto, we proposed a circumplex model of emotional display rules and developed a new scoring procedure which provides reliable indices of authentic emotional expression (preference for emotional expression vs suppression) and the type of expression modification (preference for affectation vs deamplification of emotions). We hypothesized that 1) vertical collectivism (subordination of personal interests to those of others, more characteristic of Azerbaijan) would be associated with emotional suppression, in contrast to horizontal collectivism (social cohesion, interdependence, more characteristic of Russia); 2) horizontal individualism (emphasizing individual uniqueness and difference from others, more characteristic of Azerbaijan) would be associated with stronger affectation of emotions, in contrast to vertical individualism (emphasizing rivalry and competition, more characteristic of Russia). We discovered that: 1) participants from Russia culture report higher authentic expression of emotions (they are more open in expressing surprise, happiness, sadness, and fear, although less open in expressing contempt), compared to the Azerbaijani; 2) participants from Azerbaijan are more likely to display their emotions (particularly sadness, happiness, and fear) with affectation, compared to Russians. In the Russian culture horizontal collectivism was associated with authentic emotional expression, whereas in the Azerbaijani culture vertical collectivism was associated with expressive suppression and horizontal individualism was associated with affectation of emotions. In the Russian culture the value of emotional control mediated the association of collectivism with authentic expression of positive emotions in the presence of others.

KeywordsIndividualism, collectivism, emotional control, emotional display rules, DRAI, D. Matsumoto, Russians, Azerbaijani
AcknowledgmentThe study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project № 16-06-00363
Publication date04.03.2020
Number of characters37146
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