Moscow-Beijing Eurasian Axis: Challenges and Levels of Engagement

Publication type Article
Status Published
Occupation: Member of research team «Multivariate analysis of the "Asian turn" in Russian foreign policy (achievements, problems, prospects)»
Affiliation: Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MGIMO University)
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameProblemy Dalnego Vostoka
EditionIssue 2

Over the 20 years that have passed since the signing of the Treaty of Friendship in June 2001, Russian-Chinese relations have become one of the key factors for global development. Despite the active opposition of the West, their importance to world politics is steadily increasing. At bilateral, regional and global levels of interaction Russia and China face serious challenges, but both states invariably manage to find effective responses to them. As the Sino-American rivalry intensifies, Russia's role is constantly increasing. Russia and China demonstrate complementarity at bilateral economic level as well as at a global level, that allows them to meet common challenges to establishing new international order and withstand the pressure of the West. The extension of the Treaty both reaffirmed the strategic nature of the relationship and opened new areas of engagement, including ideological ones. Amid deepening contradictions and formations of new blocs in the Indo-Pacific region aimed to contain China, Russian-Chinese interaction is becoming increasingly interdependent without becoming a formal alliance. It can be described by the concept of axis, i.e. a form of close and coordinated interaction of major nations.

KeywordsRussian-Chinese relations, extension of the 2001 Sino-Russian Treaty, military-political alliance, axis, ideological conflicts
AcknowledgmentThe study was supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 19-18-00142).
Publication date19.04.2022
Number of characters39114
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 8, views: 292

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Denisov I., Lukin А. Korrektsiya ili hedjirovanie (Correction or Hedging). Rossija v global’noi politike. 2021. No. 4. URL: (accessed: 25.11.2021). (In Russ.)

2. Gruber L. Ruling the world: power politics and the rise of supranational institutions. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

3. Kommiunike 6-go plenuma TSentralnogo komiteta Kommunisticheskoi partii Kitaia (Communique of the 6th Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China). Xinhua. 11.11.2021. URL:–11/11/c_1310305235.htm (accessed: 26.11.2021). (In Russ.)

4. Lukin A. Have We Passed the Peak of Sino-Russian Rapprochement? The Washington Quarterly. 2021. Vol. 44. No. 3.

5. Mokretskiy А.Ch. Kitaiskaia diplomatiia v epokhu Xi Jinpinga (Chinese diplomacy in the era of Xi Jinping). Mezhdunarodnaia zhizn’. 2019. No. 3. (In Russ.)

6. Rogov S.M., Sharikov P.A., Babich S.N., Petrova I.A., Stepanov N.V. Doktrina Obamy. Vlastelin dvukh kolets (The Obama doctrine. The Lord of the Two Rings.) // RSMD. URL: (accessed: 16.11.2021). (In Russ.)

7. Salitskii A.I. Dva kontura: Kitai otvetil na vyzovy 2020 g (Two circuits: China’s response to 2020 challenge). Problemy Dal'nego Vostoka. 2021. No. 3. (In Russ.)

8. Sovmestnoe zayavlenie Rossiiskoi Federatsii i Kitaiskoi Narodnoi Respubliki o razvitii otnoshenii vseobieemlyushchego partnerstva i strategicheskogo vzaimodeistviia vstupayushchikh v novuyu epokhu 5 iyunia 2019 g (Joint Statement of the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China on the development of comprehensive partnership and strategic cooperation entering a new era. June 5, 2019). URL: (accessed: 21.03.2021). (In Russ.)

9. Vinogradov A.V. Dialogovyi Format BRICS i ego rol’ v stanovlenii mnogopolyarnogo mira. (The BRICS dialogue format and its role in the formation of a multipolar world). Sravnitel’naya politika. 2014. No. 1.

10. Vinogradov A.V. Kitaiskiy proekt dlya Bol’shoi Evrazii. (China’s Project for Greater Eurasia). Mezhdunarodnye processy. 2021. Vol. 19. No. 2 (65).

11. Vinogradov A.V., Ryabov A.V. Political systems of post-Soviet countries and China in the process of intersystem transformation: an attempt of comparative analysis. Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniya. 2019. No. 3. (In Russ.).

12. Wang Chensheng, Jiang Hongfei. Mysli o sovmestnom predotvraschenii «tsvetnoi revolutsii» Kitaem i Rossiey (Thinking about Jointly Preventing the “Color Revolution” by China and Russia). Problemy Dal'nego Vostoka. 2021. No. 5.

13. 王毅: 中俄战略合作没有止境, 没有禁区, 没有上限 (Wang Yi. The Sino-Russian strategic cooperation has no end line, no restricted zones and no upper border). 外交部. 02.01.2021. URL: (accessed: 16.10.2021). (In Chin.)

14. 李葆珍: 结盟、不结盟、伙伴关系: 当代中国大国关系模式的嬗变 (Li Baozhen. Alliance, Non-alignment, Partnership: The Transmutation of Contemporary China's Great-power Relationship Model). 郑州大学学报. 2009年. 第2期. (In Chin.)

15. 习近平:让人类命运共同体的意识在周边国家落地生根 (Xi Jinping: Let the Consciousness of a Community of Human Destiny Take Root in Neighboring Countries). 人民日报. 26.10.2013. (In Chin.)

16. 冯玉军: «如何处理今天的中美俄三边关系» (Feng Yujun. How to Resolve Sino-American-Russian trilateral Relations). 世界知识. 2019年. 第12期. (In Chin.)

Система Orphus