Field Research of the Economic and Cultural Chinese Emigrants Activities in the Far East and Siberia (1949-2019)

Publication type Article
Status Published
Occupation: Senior Researcher
Affiliation: Heihe University
Address: 1, Xueyuanlu Str., Heihe, Heilongjiang Province, 164300, The People’s Republic of China
Occupation: Senior Lecturer
Affiliation: Heihe University
Address: 1, Xueyuanlu Str., Heihe, Heilongjiang Province, 164300, The People’s Republic of China
Journal nameProblemy Dalnego Vostoka
EditionIssue 3

The article is devoted to the study of labor migration in the system of Russian (Soviet)-Chinese relations 1949-2019. The article is based on unique previously unpublished archival data and field research. The authors consider the circumstances that had a significant impact on the migration policy of the USSR, which, in conditions of a small number of its own population, needed to attract immigrants from China to the Far East and the Siberian part of the USSR; analyze the reasons and benefits of the PRC, allowing the leadership of the republic to send its citizens to study and work in the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. Using concrete examples and archival data, the authors studied the dynamics of Chinese migration, the reasons for their moving abroad and returning to their homeland, highlighting two periods of active Chinese migration to Russia: 1) 1949-1966; 2) 1990-2019. The authors studied the activities of Chinese communities in Russian (Soviet) territories in both periods and came to the conclusion that these two periods are radically different from each other. During the "Soviet period" of labor migration, Chinese workers, on the one hand, easily assimilated in the Far East and Siberia, easily made friends among the local population, married Soviet women, on the other hand, maintained contact with their native culture, transported their wives and children to the USSR, who had a specially created kindergarten and school program for them with the study of Chinese lingua and culture. The "Russian period" is distinguished by the isolation of the life of Chinese communities, many of whose members have illegal status and are engaged in corruption. Nevertheless, labor migrants from China feel very comfortable living in the Far East and Siberia. Most Chinese emigrants have the goal of improving their economic situation and getting an education, achieving which more than 99% of Chinese return to China.

KeywordsChina, USSR, archives, history of the USSR, Far East, Siberia, labor emigration
Publication date21.06.2022
Number of characters20718
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 556

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Amurskij statisticheskij ezhegodnik 2020: Statisticheskij sbornik (Amur Statistical Yearbook 2020: Statistical collection) / pod red. G.A. Davydova. Blagoveshchensk: Amurstat, 2020. (In Russ.)

2. Dacyshen V.G. Deti i detstvo v sovetsko-kitajskih otnosheniyah v 1950-h godah (Children and childhood in Soviet-Chinese relations in the 1950-s). Istoricheskij kur'er. 2021. No. 1 (15). (In Russ.)

3. Dacyshen V.G. Kitajskie rabochie na Dzhidinskom kombinate v 1950-h gg.: po materia-lam mestnoj gazety (Chinese workers at the Jida Combine in the 1950s: based on the materials of a local newspaper). Sovremennaya nauchnaya mysl'. 2018. No. 5. (In Russ.)

4. Dacyshen V.G. Otpravka rabochih iz provincii Hebej v SSSR v 1955 g. Iz istorii russko-kitajskih otnoshenij (Sending workers from Hebei province to the USSR in 1955. From the History of Russian-Chinese relations). Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2019. No. 445. (In Russ.)

5. Dorohov V.ZH. UVD na granice: deyatel'nost' UVD Habarovskogo kraya po obespecheniyu gosudarstvennoj i obshchestvennoj bezopasnosti v usloviyah obostreniya sovetsko-kitajskih protivorechij: 1959–1972 gody (ATC at the border: the activities of the Khabarovsk Territory ATC to ensure state and public security in the context of the aggravation of the Soviet-Chinese contradictions: 1959–1972), Khabarovsk: Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, 2015. (In Russ.)

6. Zabiyako A.P. Russkie i kitajcy: etnomigracionnye processy na Dal'nem Vostoke (Russians and Chinese: ethnomigration processes in the Far East) / red. A.P. Zabiyako. Blagoveshchensk: Amur State University, 2009. (In Russ.)

7. Istoriya mezhdunarodnyh otnoshenij na Dal'nem Vostoke. 1945–1977 (History of international relations in the Far East. 1945–1977) / M.S. Kapica, D.V. Petrov, B.N. Slavinskij (i dr.); Otv. redkol.: S.L. Tihvinskij (gl. red.) (i dr.). Khabarovsk: Kn. izd-vo, 1978. (In Russ.)

8. Kuznecov M.V. Kitajskie rabochie v Usol'e-Sibirskom (1955–1963 gg.) (Chinese workers in Usole-Sibirskoe (1955–1963)). Irkutskij istoriko-ekonomicheskij ezhegodnik. 2010. Irkutsk: Baikal State University, 2010. (In Russ.)

9. Nacional'nyj sostav naseleniya SSSR: Po dannym Vsesoyuz. perepisi naseleniya 1989 g. (The national composition of the population of the USSR: According to the All-Union. population censuses of 1989) / Gos. kom. SSSR po statistike, Inform.-izd. centr. Moscow: Finansy i statistika, 1991. (In Russ.)

10. Prienisejskaya Sibir' v sovetsko-kitajskih otnosheniyah (1917 — nachalo 1980-h gg.) (Yenisei Siberia in Soviet-Chinese relations (1917 — early 1980s)) / V.G. Dacyshen, L.A. Kutilova, A.V. Nizovskih, M.G. Tarasov. Krasnoyarsk: Siberian Federal University, 2016. (In Russ.)

11. Territorial'nye prityazaniya Pekina: sovremennost', istoriya (Beijing's Territorial claims: modernity, history) / Sost. G.V. Vasil'ev i dr. Moscow: Politizdat, 1979. (In Russ.)

12. Hrushchev N.S. Stroitel'stvo kommunizma v SSSR i razvitie sel'skogo hozyajstva (The construction of communism in the Soviet Union and the development of agriculture). Vol. 1. Moscow, 1962. (In Russ.)

13. Yan Shushen. Mekhanizm social'noj mobilizacii kitajskih rabochih v 1950 gody (The mechanism of social mobilization of Chinese workers in the 1950s). Kitajskie rabochie v SSSR: opyt antropologicheskogo osmysleniya: sb. materialov mezhdu-nar. nauch.-prakt. konf. (g. Perm', 14–15 maya 2015 g.) / otv. red. M.S. Kamenskih. Perm: Perm State University of Humanities and Pedagogy, 2015. (In Russ.)

14. 丁荟语: “实施‘两国一城’构想开创兴边富民之路” (Ding Huiyu. Implement the concept of "two countries-one city" and create a path to prosperity) // 俄罗斯中亚东欧市场. 2008, 9. (In Chin.)

15. 段秀峰、李新锁: “清苑。1955赴苏援建” (Duan Xiufeng, Li Xingso. Qing Yuan. Soviet aid in construction in 1955). 北京: 新华出版社,2011. (In Chin.)

16. 旅俄华人史料选黑河文史资料第八辑 (Selected Historical Materials of Chinese in Russia-Heihe Literary and Historical Materials Eighth Series) // 黑龙江省黑河市委员会文史资料研究工作委员会编. 1991. (In Chin.).宁艳红: “新时期俄罗斯远东地区中国人现状调查与研究” (Ning Yanhong. Preliminary study of the current situation of the Chinese in the Russian Far East) // 学术交流. 2018. 10期. (In Chin.)

17. 宁艳红: “新时期俄罗斯远东地区中国人现状调查与研究” (Ning Yanho. Preliminary study of the current situation of the Chinese in the Russian Far East) // 学术交流. 2018年。

18. 宁艳红,付雪婧,王薇:“1949–2019年俄罗斯远东及西伯利亚地区华人华侨经济文化活动的田野调查” (Ning Yanhong, Fu Xuejing, Wang Wei. A field investigation on over seas Chinese's economic and cultural activities in the Russian far east and siberia from 1949 to 2019). 黑河学报. 2020. 10期. (In Chin.)

19. 强小云: “移民对当代中俄关系的影响—非传统安全视角的分析” (Qiang Xiaoyun. Factors of influence of immigrants on Sino-Russian relations: an analysis from the point of view of non-traditional security). 北京: 时事出版社,2010. (In Chin.)

Система Orphus