The Consulates of the Republic of China in the Soviet Far East and Siberia during the Period of the Great Terror

 
PIIS013128120007509-0-1
DOI10.31857/S013128120007509-0
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation:
Address: Russian Federation
Journal nameProblemy Dalnego Vostoka
EditionIssue 5(2)
Pages107-121
Abstract

The article deals with the situation of consulates of the Republic of China in the Soviet Russia in 1937–1938. Chinese consulates were in an ambivalent situation at the time of Great Terror. On the one hand, they were the representatives of the friendly State and unlike many other consulates were not closed. However, the NKVD accused many members of the consulates’ staff of working for the Japanese intelligence. Attempts to protect Chinese citizens frequently were regarded by the Soviet officials as hostile activity.

KeywordsGreat Terror, NKVD, Chinese operation, Chinese diaspora, People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs, consulates of the Republic of China, Soviet Russia, Sino-Soviet relations
Received01.12.2019
Publication date05.12.2019
Number of characters56274
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1. . Khlevnyuk O.V. Master. Stalin and the approval of the Stalinist dictatorship. M., 2010.S. 13-14.

2. . See: Khaustov V.N., Samuelson L. Stalin, NKVD and repression 1936–1938. M., 2010. S. 39–41.

3. . Through the corpses of the enemy, for the good of the people. "Kulak operation" in the Ukrainian SSR 1937-1941 T. 2.M., 2010. S. 565–566.

4. . See Khlevnyuk O.V. Master. Stalin and the statement ... S. 295–296. The article was published in the newspaper Pravda. No. 121. 05/04/1937.

5. . See, for example: Okhotin N.G., Roginsky A.B. From the history of the "German operation" of the NKVD 1937-1938 // Punished people. Repression against Russian Germans. M., 1999. S. 45–48.

6. . Belkovets L.P. Russia on the way to diplomatic and consular law (1917-1938). Novosi-Birsk, 2010.S. 433–434.

7. . Ibid., S. 440–441.

8. . Dullen S. The compaction of borders: to the origins of Soviet politics. 1920-1940 e. M., 2019.P. 300.

9. . In the same place. S. 301.

10. . See, for example: Documents of Soviet Foreign Policy. T. 21. January 1 - December 31, 1938 M., 1976. S. 703 (Note. 19); VKP (b), the Comintern and Japan. 1917-1941 M., 2001.S. 196.

11. . Belkovets L.P. Russia is on the way ... S. 444.

12. . The first two Japanese consulates were closed in 1937, also using pressure from the NKVD.

13. . Archive of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation (WUA RF). F. 05. Op. 18. P. 137. D. 1. L. 302.

14. . See, for example: Sotnikova I.N. Soviet assistance to China in the anti-Japanese war of 1937–1945 // The role of the USSR and China in achieving victory in the Second World War. M., 2012. S. 37–46.

15. . WUA RF. F. 05. Op. 18. P. 137. D. 1. L. 38.

16. . In the same place.

17. . In the same place.

18. . In the same place. L. 161–162.

19. . The fate of the "anti-Soviet elements" in accordance with the NKVD order No. 00447 of July 30, 1937 was decided on the infamous "troika", and the scale of the operation was controlled by the "limits" issued by the center for the 1st and 2nd categories (i.e., accordingly, arrows or conclusion). “National” operations, also extrajudicial, were carried out in an “al-bomber order”: those arrested during the investigation were divided into the same two categories, after which, endorsed by the head of the local NKVD and the prosecutor, the lists sewn into “albums” were sent to the NKVD of the USSR. In Moscow, they were approved by the commission of the People’s Commissar of Internal Affairs and the USSR Pro-Kuror (or their deputies), after which the sentences were carried out (see: Petrov N.V., Yansen M. “Stalin's Pet” - Nikolai Ezhov. M., 2008 S. 98–105, 113–114).

20. . Shearer D. Policing Stalin's socialism: repression and social order in the Soviet Union, 1924–1953. New Haven, 2009. P. 316-317.

21. . Dullen S. The compaction of borders ... C. 267–269.

22. . About the beginning of the “Chinese” operation in the Far Eastern Territory for more details see: Kalkaev E.G. To the question of the beginning of the "Chinese operation" of the NKVD (1937–1938) // Questions of history. 2018. No. 12. P. 66–87.

23. . See, for example: Chernolutskaya E.N. Forced Migrations in the Soviet Far East in the 1920s – 1950s Vladivostok, 2011.S. 260.

24. . Lubyanka. Stalin and the Main Directorate of State Security of the NKVD. 1937-1938. M., 2004.S. 539.

25. . According to preliminary data from the NKVD, by the beginning of April 1938, 10,282 Ki-Thais were arrested in the province (Central Archive of the FSB. F. 3. Op. 5. D. 49. L. 261.), later the head of the UNKVD of the Far East escaped from the USSR Krai G.S. Lyushkov talked about 11,000 Chinese arrested during the operation (Lyushkov G.S.Soren shakaisyugi heehan: [I criticize Soviet socialism] // Heckan Russia: [Monthly Russia]. 1939. No. 5. C. 50).

26. . Stalin's deportations. 1928–1953. M., 2005.S. 101.

27. . See also: Kalkaev E.G. To the question of the beginning of the "Chinese operation" ... S. 78–82.

28. . It is important to note that the cases of more than 1,000 Chinese arrested before February 1938 for espionage and other anti-Soviet activities were also usually considered within the framework of the "album" line - the "Harbin" line - which was actually interpreted as the line of Japanese espionage.

29. . For more details see: Kalkaev E.G. The Consulate General of the Republic of China in Vladivostok during the “Chinese operation” of the NKVD (1937–1938) // Society and State in China. T. XLIX. Part 2.M., 2019.

30. . Due to the fact that in the 30s of the XX century the majority of Chinese names were recorded in Russian transcription very randomly, in this article all spelled distorted or unconfirmed by hieroglyphics are shown in italics. The spelling of names whose hieroglyphs are known are not distinguished. Whenever possible, cited documents use modern accepted spelling.

31. . Central Archive of the FSB (CA FSB). F. 3. Op. 4. D. 861. L. 259.

32. . In the same place. L. 258.

33. . In the same place. Op. 5. D. 39. L. 314.

34. . In the same place.

35. . In the same place.

36. . In the same place.

37. . During the work, copies of documents sent in 1938 by Yezhov and Frinovsky to the party leadership were used.

38. . Kalkaev E.G. To the question of the beginning of the "Chinese operation" ... S. 79.

39. . Quan Shien was at that time one of the oldest representatives of China in Russia. Back in 1911, while serving as an attache at the embassy, ??he was simultaneously listed as a teacher of Chinese at St. Petersburg University. In subsequent years, he was vice-consul in Khabarovsk, consul in Chita, consul general in Vladivostok, and at the end of 1937 he returned to Khabarovsk as consul general. (See: List of Persons Serving in the St. Petersburg School District by January 1, 1912, St. Petersburg, 1912. P. 26., Yan Godun. Chinese Teachers at St. Petersburg University until 1917 // Confucius Institute. March 2012. Issue 11. No. 2. P. 27.)

40. . TSA FSB. F. 3. Op. 5. D. 49. L. 258.

41. . In the same place. L. 259.

42. . TSA FSB. F. 3. Op. 5. D. 53. L. 181.

43. . In the same place. L. 182–183.

44. . In the same place. L. 180–181.

45. . In the same place. L. 185.

46. . In the same place. L. 185–186.

47. . TSA FSB. F. 3. Op. 5. D. 37. L. 77–78.

48. . TSA FSB. D. 3. Op. 5. D. 45. L. 54–55.

49. . The text refers to an employee of the consulate Zhong-Shin, however, apparently, this refers to Vice-Consul Zhang Chen. In Russian-language documents, his name was usually written as Zhang-Shin or Zhang-Shin, in this form it is also found in other NKVD messages.

50. . TSA FSB. F. 3. Op. 5. D. 44. L. 389.

51. . TSA FSB. F. 3. Op. 5. D. 59. L. 169.

52. . TSA FSB. F. 3. Op. 5. D. 43. L. 371.

53. . TSA FSB. F. 3. Op. 5. D. 44. L. 389.

54. . About Lyushkov, see, for example: Khaustov V.N., Samuelson L. Stalin, NKVD and repression ... P. 95, 301-302.

55. . Petrov N.V., Jansen M. “The Stalin's Pet” ... P. 125–128.

56. . Kalkaev E.G. To the question of the beginning of the "Chinese operation" ... P. 84 (sn. 52).

57. . See more details: Dullen S. Stalin and his diplomats: Soviet Union and Europe, 1930–1939 M., 2009. S. 199–225, Dullen S. Border compaction ... S. 305–318.

58. . Belkovets L.P., Belkovets S.V. History of the German Consulate in Novosibirsk // Siberian Mountains. 2013. No. 8. P. 180.

59. . According to the consulate, only by July 1937, 22 Chinese citizens were convicted of spying in Chita and were detained for about 50 more. (WUA RF. F. 100. Op. 21. P. 52. D. 3. L. 95 , 96.)

60. . WUA RF. F. 0100. Op. 21. P. 187. D. 9. L. 7-8.

61. . In the same place. L. 9.

62. . In the same place. L. 8.

63. . In the same place. L. 5.

64. . In the same place.

65. . However, during the period of “national” operations, most of the “espionage” cases of the Chinese were considered out of court, which did not involve court proceedings.

66. . In the same place. L. 6.

67. . Similar problems were experienced by the central office of the NKID, whose employees could not answer the requests of the Chinese embassy about some individuals due to long delays from the 8th Division of the GUGB NKVD (WUA RF. F. 0100. Opt. 22. P 191. D. 30.L. 8, 9). The leaders of the NKVD departments, without authorization from above, could refuse to inform the agents about the total number of those arrested (WUA RF. F. 0100. Op. 22. P. 191. D. 30. L. 82).

68. . WUA RF. F. 0100. Op. 21. P. 187. D. 9. L. 11.

69. . WUA RF. F. 09. Op. 29. P. 121. D. 24. L. 20.

70. . WUA RF. F. 0100. Op. 22. P. 190. D. 16.

71. . See, for example, the recording of the conversation of the assistant to the head of the 2nd Eastern Department, M.S. Mitskevich and Secretary of the Embassy Gen Kuan (WUA RF. F. 9. Op. 29. P. 121. D. 24. L. 24–25).

72. . This issue was discussed in Moscow between representatives of the NKID and the Chinese Embassy, ??the main decisions, of course, were made in the Kremlin (see: Chernolutskaya E.N. Forced Migrations ... P. 262–263).

73. . Lubyanka. Stalin and the Main Directorate of State Security of the NKVD ... P. 539.

74. . In the same place.

75. . WUA RF. F. 0100. Op. 22. P. 191. D. 30. L. 29.

76. . In the same place. L. 21.

77. . In the same place. L. 29.

78. . As E. Chernolutskaya shows, in addition to the Soviet wives of Chinese citizens, who were ordered by Yezhov to leave for Xinjiang with their husbands after the procedure for withdrawing from USSR citizenship, at least 65 ethnic Chinese and 7 Chinese women also applied for withdrawal. Whether it was received is not clear. See: Chernolutskaya E.N. Forced Migrations ... pp. 265–266.

79. . WUA RF. F. 0100. Op. 22. P. 191. D. 30. L. 22.

80. . WUA RF. F. 5. Op. 18. P. 145. D. 98. L. 70–71.

81. . In the same place.

82. . TSA FSB D. 3. Op. 5. D. 40. L. 291.

83. . WUA RF. F. 100. Op. 28a. P. 147. D. 1. L. 33.

84. . TSA FSB F. 3. Op. 5. D. 45. L. 54–55.

85. . TSA FSB. F. 3. Op. 5. D. 44. L. 389.

86. . See: Potapova N.A. The anti-Chinese action of the NKVD of the USSR of the period of the “Great Terror” in the Far Eastern Territory: the mechanisms and scale of repression // Problems of the Far East. 2018. No. 3. P. 160.

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