Transformation of National State in the Changing World Order

 
PIIS013122270007846-1-1
DOI10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-11-95-104
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Head of Department for Comparative Political Studies
Affiliation: Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO)
Address: 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation
Occupation: Leading Researcher, Department for Comparative Political Studies
Affiliation: Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO)
Address: 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation
Journal nameMirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia
EditionVolume 63 Issue 11
Pages95-104
Abstract

The article analyzes the main factors and trends in the transformation of national state as a result of deep social and political shifts in the modern world. The key determinants of this transformation include the rising role of non-Western countries, ethno-social and ethno-political changes in the developed Western countries, the split of elites, growing political tension in societies, formation of supranational and transnational political entities, the divergence of transnational and national elites’ interests. The EU member states face numerous challenges caused by demographic shifts, mass foreign cultural migration, identity crisis, ethno-political conflicts, separatism, as well as by political consequences of technological shifts and social innovations, formation of new regional alliances and centers of power in the single global world. The article investigates adaptive changes and politico-institutional transformation paths of national states as a response to these challenges. The authors study the main prerequisites and reasons for the strengthening of Euroscepticism and populism in the EU member states, concluding that these political phenomena are closely connected with the crisis and transformation of the classical European national state. Furthermore, it is shown that attempts to forcefully form a nation and build nation-states in the post-Soviet space often lead to serious social, cultural and political problems in multi-ethnic post-Soviet societies. Such countries face political instability, up to the onset of symptoms peculiar to incapacity of a State and fundamental degradation of national statehood. These problems are caused, on the one hand, by the lack of social consolidation, the presence of powerful clan and oligarchic structures, political divisions and the alienation of elites from the general population; on the other hand – by global processes and external pressure on the post-Soviet states.

Keywordsnational state, nation-state, institutional transformation, identity, political conflicts, EU member states, post-Soviet states
Received09.12.2019
Publication date09.12.2019
Number of characters31951
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СОВРЕМЕННОЕ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВО: ОСНОВНЫЕ ВЫЗОВЫ

2 Говоря о современном национальном государстве, прежде всего следует охарактеризовать различия между понятиями “государство-нация” (nation-state) и “национально-территориальное государство”. Первое понятие возникло в Западной Европе, в странах, где сформировалась нация (Великобритания, Франция, Нидерланды, позднее Германия, Италия и др.), а также в странах с преимущественно англосаксонским населением в различных частях света (США, Канада, Австралия, Новая Зеландия) (cм., например: [1, 2, 3]). Второе понятие значительно шире, оно охватывает все современные государства, входящие в ООН, многие из которых не являются государствами-нациями в полном и изначальном смысле слова [4, 5, 6]. При этом под названием “национально-территориальное государство” на деле нередко скрываются государственные образования разной природы, в которых нация и государство-нация по разным причинам не сформированы. В частности, это обусловливается фундаментальным различием “генетики” классических западноевропейских государств-наций, с одной стороны, и, с другой – национально-территориальных государств, континуум которых ко второй половине ХХ в. покрывал всю (за исключением Антарктиды) Землю. Первые возникли как социально-политические структуры, оформляющие относительно автономные “внутренние рынки” соответствующих полиэтнических сообществ, защищенные на начальных этапах абсолютистской властью и вписанные в развитую систему международного рынка. Для них эта условная “обособленность” внутреннего рынка стала решающим фактором стремительной трансформации исходного полиэтнического сообщества в этнически однородное. Достигалось это в период активного нациестроительства властным принуждением к единству языка, конфессии, истории и культуры.
3 Но к началу ХХ в. возможности такого пути нациестроительства оказались в основном исчерпанными. Миновав полосу глубочайшего кризиса и двух мировых войн, мир пришел к иному решению, когда все этно- и социокультурное многообразие незападных сообществ (большинство которых получило возможность политического самоопределения в ходе распада разного рода западных и незападных империй) удалось “упаковать” в институциональную оболочку национально-территориального государства [7, 8]. Иными словами, национально-территориальное государство стало рамочным условием легитимации любого претендента на членство в международном сообществе современных государств. Но далеко не все национально-территориальные государства сумели сформировать содержательное наполнение этой “рамки”, соответствующее идеальному типу государства-нации, политически консолидирующего общества национально-государственного начала. Этим обстоятельством обусловлены многие внутренние дисфункции современного государства, вплоть до проявлений государственной несостоятельности.

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