The Comparison of the Archaeological and Ethnographic Sources Used in Studying the Old Russian Costume in Works by Russian Archaeologists [Sopostavlenie arkheologicheskikh i etnograficheskikh istochnikov v izuchenii drevnerusskogo kostiuma v trudakh otechestvennykh arkheologov]

 
PIIS086954150004185-3-1
DOI10.31857/S086954150004185-3
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Tver State University
Address: 33 Zhelyabova St, Tver, 170100, Russia
Journal nameEtnograficheskoe obozrenie
Edition1
Pages134-148
Abstract

The article discusses the issue of interrelation between the old costume of Kievan Rus and the later Russian traditional costume of the 19th — early 20th centuries as it stood in works by archeologists and ethnographers. The assumption that some of the dress codes of the costume of the latter times could be traced back to antiquity made it possible to apply ethnographic materials in reconstructing the costume of Kievan Rus and studying its typological features. Archaeological-ethnographic research in most cases focused on the cut of a shirt, female headdress, and poneva, a type of traditional skirt. Indeed, there are parallels and similarities between the forms of female headdresses, shirts, and their elements as described by archaeologists and ethnographers. At the same time, the evolution of the cloth with straps and poneva has not been conclusively or sufficiently studied to date.

Keywordscostume, cloth, archaeological sources, ethnographic sources, Old Russsia, Kievan Rus, cut, sarafan, poneva, shirt
Received24.03.2019
Publication date26.03.2019
Number of characters29767
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1 Для исследователя древнего костюма знание этнографических описаний одежды чрезвычайно важно, поскольку именно оно позволяет заполнять лакуны, вызванные недостатком источников. Как правило, этнографические данные используются в археологических исследованиях костюма в двух вариантах. Первый — сравнительный анализ: найденные фрагменты или изображения средневековых одежд сопоставляются с образцами XIX — начала XX в., в результате чего исследователь получает более ясное представление о типе древней одежды. Это особенно важно, когда археологические остатки одежды фрагментированы — тогда этнографические данные позволяют уточнить, каков мог быть крой костюма или отдельные приемы его изготовления.
2 Второй вариант — использование одежды, описанной этнографами, как своеобразного “фона” для реконструкции древнего костюма, данные о котором практически отсутствуют, но есть представление об отдельных аксессуарах и месте их размещения. На этот “фон” накладываются украшения и застежки средневекового костюма, и делаются выводы о характере их ношения и принадлежности к определенному виду одежды. При этом наиболее часто привлекаемыми оказываются данные о крое вещей (напр., туникообразных и поликовых рубах, воротников-стоечек, косовороток, опястий или зарукавий), называемых в научной литературе архаичными, а также о манере ношения аксессуаров (ожерелий, поясов и т.п.). Примером могут служить и воссоздаваемые в музейной и реконструкторской практике костюмы, в которых часто используется описанный этнографами крой.
3 Еще во второй половине XIX в. этнографические памятники стали использоваться в исследованиях средневековых древностей Руси. Сравнительный анализ характеристик материальной и духовной культуры позволил сделать вывод о наличии преемственной связи между крестьянской культурой XVIII–XIX вв. и древнерусской культурой. Этот вывод прослеживается в трудах Д.Н. Анучина, Е.В. Барсова, Н.П. Кондакова, А.С. Уварова, И.Е. Забелина и других авторов. Этот вывод относится и к исследованиям древнерусского костюма. Так, В.С. Воронов предполагал, что корни позднейших этнографических данных можно найти в “раскопочном материале” (Воронов 1924: 21, 31). М.Г. Рабинович отмечал, как много дает исследователю сопоставление древних материалов с поздними предметами одежды и народного искусства — вышивкой, резьбой и росписью (Рабинович 1986: 40). Проблеме археолого-этнографических параллелей в реконструкциях материальной культуры и общественных систем прошлого посвящен значительный объем научной литературы (см., напр., историографический обзор: Кениг 2010). В настоящей статье анализируется опыт сопоставления археологических и этнографических источников в изучении древнерусского костюма и накопленных к настоящему времени материалов, позволяющих конкретизировать или пересмотреть представления о взаимосвязи отдельных элементов русского костюма Средневековья и Нового времени.

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