India’s agriculture and 25 years of economic reform (1991– 2016)

 
PIIS086919080001858-0-1
DOI10.31857/S086919080001858-0
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Institute of Oriental studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameVostok. Afro-Aziatskie obshchestva: istoriia i sovremennost
EditionIssue 5
Pages154-166
Abstract

During 70 years since Independence, India's agriculture has achieved great success. During the initial period, an import-substituting model of economic growth was adopted as the basis for development. In the early 1990s, when basic needs of food security were ensured, the Indian state initiated an export re-orientation. The article describes three stages of the agricultural sector development in India:1) the stage of compensatory growth from the turn of the 1940s to the mid-1960s; 2) the stage of the “green revolution” from the mid-1960s to the early 1990s; 3) the stage of export orientation from the early 1990s to the present. The author identifies key drivers of economic growth for these stages of Indian agricultural evolution. The focus was on the results of the economic reform initiated in the early 1990s and becoming the starting point of the third stage of development. In the mid-2010s, 10 per cent of the gross agricultural product was exported that is four times more than in the early 1970s. India did enter the list of leading exporters not only for traditional agricultural products, but also for nontraditional goods, including fishery products, fruits, and livestock. The growth rate in the sectors producing these products was higher than the growth rate of crops production. It is in these sectors that the technology of the second “green revolution” was introduced. The article notes that the growth of food exports in India occurred against the background of large masses of hungry amounting to more than 15 per cent of the total population. 

KeywordsIndia, agriculture, green revolution, biotechnology, import-substituting model, export orientation, economic growth, marginalization, crop farming, horticulture
Received26.10.2018
Publication date28.10.2018
Cite   Download pdf To download PDF you should sign in
Размещенный ниже текст является ознакомительной версией и может не соответствовать печатной

views: 197

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. TheEast: food and development. Rastyannikov V.G. (ed.). M.: Nauka, 1986. 344 pp. (in Russian).

2. Deryugina I.V. Agriculture in the world: the past and the future 1980-2010-2050. Moscow: Pero, 2015. 128 pp. (in Russian).

3. Deryugina I.V. Countries of South Asia: will hunger be overcome. Economic, social, political, ethnic and religious problems of African-Asian countries: in memory of L.F. Pakhomova. Eds: O.P. Bibikova, N.N. Tsvetkova. Moscow: IOS, 2016. Pp. 97–114 (in Russian).

4. Maliarov O.V. Independent India: evolution of socio-economic model and economic development. Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura, 2010. 744 pp. (inRussian).

5. Sustainable rural development through agricultural innovation. Committee on agriculture. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Rome, 26–30 September 2016. 12 pp. (in Russian).

6. Status and trends of biotechnologies applied to the conservation and use of genetic resources for food and agriculture. Commission on genetic resources for food and agriculture. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Rome, 4–6 April 2011. 20 pp. (in Russian).

7. Rastyannikov V.G., Deryugina I.V. Agricultural dynamics of the twentieth century. Experience of comparative historical research. Moscow: IOS, 1999. 331 pp. (in Russian).

8. Agriculture Census 2010–2011. Phase-I. All India Report on Number and Area of Operational Holdings. Govt. of India. New Delhi, 2014. 97 pp.

9. Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 1992–1993. Govt. of India. New Delhi, 1993. 419 pp.

10. Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2015–2016. Govt. of India. New Delhi, 2016. 507 pp.

11. Agricultural Statistics at a Glance 2016–2017. Govt. of India. New Delhi, 2017. 519 pp.

12. Economic Survey 2012–2013. Statistical Appendix. Govt. of India. New Delhi, 2013. 130 pp.

13. Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics 2015. Rome. FAO, 2015. 107 pp.

14. India Transformed. 25 Years of Economic Reforms. Ed. by R. Mohan. New Delhi: Viking by Penguin Random House, India, 2017. 756 pp.

15. Transforming Indian Agriculture – India 2040: Productivity, Markets, and Institutions. Ed.by M. Ferroni. New Delhi: Sage Publication India, 2013. 368 pp.



Additional sources and materials

Economic Survey 2014–15. Statistical Appendix. Govt. of India. New Delhi, 2015. 148 p. http://indiabuddjet.nic.in (accessed: 25.03.2017).

Economic Survey 2017–18. Statistical Appendix. Govt. of India. New Delhi, 2018. – 163 p. http://mofapp.nic.in (accessed: 26.02.2018).

FAOSTAT. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/CL (accessed: 29.04.2018).

Horticultural Statistics at a Glance 2017. Govt. of India. New Delhi. 2017. 514 p. http://www.agricoop.nic.in (accessed: 11.03.2018).

UNCTADSTAT // http://unctadstat.unctad.org (accessed: 20.02.2018).

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up