Situation at the Afghan – Pakistan Border in thq 1980-s

 
PIIS086919080011285-0-1
DOI10.31857/S086919080011285-0
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Saint Petersburg University of industrial technologies and design
Address: Russian Federation,
Journal nameVostok. Afro-Aziatskie obshchestva: istoriia i sovremennost
EditionIssue 5
Pages172-184
Abstract

The author will consider the appeals of Pakistan on violations of the state border and the appeals of Afghanistan on a similar issue received in the 1980s addressed to the UN Secretary-General. At present, it’s impossible to find out whether these appeals corresponded to reality, so the author will study them as an indirect indicator of the state of Afghan-Pakistani relations. The author analyzed several hundred of these appeals and compiled statistics on the number of appeals, the nature of the complaints and the number of victims, summarizing his results in five tables. In addition, the author calculated the total number of episodes indicated in the appeals. The author also compiled statistics on the responses of Afghanistan to Pakistani complaints and the responses of Pakistan to Afghan complaints, expressed in the form of a table. The reaction to these appeals from several states and international organizations is analyzed, and resolutions of the UN General Assembly «Good neighbourliness between states» are examined. The greatest number of mutual appeals on the issue of violations of the state border and the episodes contained in them occurred in 1985–1987, what, according to the author, can serve as an indirect sign that these years were a period of maximum deterioration Afghan-Pakistani relations. 1988 was marked by a decrease in both the number of appeals and the number of episodes, which indicates that the success of the Geneva negotiations and the beginning of the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan helped to soften Afghan-Pakistani relations.

KeywordsAfghan war, Afghan armed conflict, Afghan-Pakistani relations, Durand line, border violations, UN General Assembly
Received06.09.2020
Publication date31.10.2020
Number of characters29710
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1 Известно, что Пакистан сыграл значительную роль в эскалации и развитии афганского вооруженного конфликта 1979–1989 гг. (с участием СССР) и был одним из самых активных внешних акторов этого конфликта. На протяжении всех 1980-х гг. Пакистан пользовался расположением США как «прифронтовое государство» и выполнял роль своего рода плацдарма по подготовке членов военных формирований афганских антиправительственных группировок – на территории Пакистана располагались штаб-квартиры афганских антиправительственных организаций, размещались лагеря для подготовки будущих боевиков, Пакистан принял основную массу афганских беженцев. Кроме того, ежегодно на сессиях Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН в ходе прений, посвященных ситуации в Афганистане и вокруг него, Пакистан представлял резолюцию «Положение в Афганистане и его последствия для международного мира и безопасности» [А/39/PV.60, 1984, р. 1045; А/40/PV.71, 1985, р. 16], одним из основных авторов которой он был так же ежегодно.
2 Афгано-пакистанским отношениям в 1980-е гг. посвящены разные научные работы зарубежных и отечественных авторов: так, это работы В.Я. Белокреницкого разных лет – «История Пакистана. ХХ век» в соавторстве с В.Н. Москаленко [Белокреницкий, 2008], «Восток в мирополитических процессах» [Белокреницкий, 2010], его статьи [Белокреницкий, 2013]; диссертация Ю.Н. Паничкина «Пакистано-афганские отношения: эволюция, проблемы, решения. 1947–2014 гг.» [Паничкин, 2016], его монография «Пакистано-афганские отношения. Формирование и развитие (1947–2013)» [Паничкин, 2014] и статьи [Паничкин, 2009; Паничкин, 2011]; статья В.В. Воробьева о правлении М. Зия-уль-Хака [Воробьев, 2011]; труды иностранных исследователей – статья A.З. Хилали «The costs and benefits of the Afghan war for Pakistan» [Hilali, 2002], монография Х. Хакани «Pakistan. Between mosque and military» [Haqquani, 2005], и другие работы.
3 В настоящей статье автор хотел бы рассмотреть такой достаточно малоизученный аспект этих отношений, как пограничные споры Пакистана и Афганистана в 1980-е гг., связанные с проявлениями агрессии какой-либо из сторон и отраженные в документах ООН. Если афгано-советская граница надежно охранялась как минимум со стороны СССР (и то, не обходилось без провокаций и переброски на советскую сторону подрывных элементов); афгано-иранская граница была относительно спокойной (в сравнении с пакистанской); афгано-китайская граница коротка и проходит по малодоступному участку гор [Ежов, 1990, c. 12]; то граница Афганистана и Пакистана длинная, изрезана многочисленными тропами и дорогами, и к тому же эту границу, проведенную колониальной администрацией Британской Индии в 1893 г. и известную как «линия Дюранда», отказывались признавать легитимной все афганские правительства начиная с 1930-х гг. (хотя и соглашались с ее узаконенностью на международном уровне). Таким образом, на протяжении 1980-х гг. афгано-пакистанская граница оставалась одной из острейших «болевых точек» на территории Афганистана.

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