Soviet-Korean Relations before of and during the War of 1950–1953

 
PIIS086919080009912-0-1
DOI10.31857/S086919080009912-0
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Chief Researcher
Affiliation: Institute of Russian History, RAS
Address: Moscow, Moscow, Russia
Journal nameVostok. Afro-Aziatskie obshchestva: istoriia i sovremennost
EditionIssue 6
Pages85-95
Abstract

Based on the developments in Russian historiography on the topic, new archival documents and materials found in the Foundation of the well-known state and public figure of the USSR V. Molotov (RGASPI), the author set out to reveal the activities of the highest bod-ies of state power and government of the USSR and DPRK, statesmen. They oversaw these relationships at that difficult time in the regions of the Far East. The events took place mainly during the war (1950–1953), unleashed by the United States on the territory of the Korean Peninsula.

Of course, the DPRK as a young state needed support and assistance primarily from the Soviet Union as its closest neighbor, with its social system and economic structure. In this situation, at first the relations between the leaders of states that showed a certain interest in each other played an important role in the intercourse between states.

All undertakings of this process were interrupted by a war for a period of more than three years. However, even in these conditions, the development of relations between North Korea (DPRK) and the USSR has not stopped.

At a new stage in these relations, which was a natural phenomenon, the military compo-nent was noticeably strengthened. The situation was determined by the military situation in the DPRK. More than 400 specialists, mainly Soviet Koreans, the elite of the Korean com-munity in the USSR, as well as groups of workers; according to some sources, in total more than one thousand people went to the DPRK with the aim of assisting in organizing the state administration apparatus and developing the branches of the national economy. The Soviet Union acted as the basis for training young specialists for the DPRK. The USSR also sent military advisers. The leadership of these undertakings was concentrated in the SNK of the USSR. Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, as well as the structures of the SNK (Council of Ministers) of the USSR that he headed, made a noticeable contribution to the implementation of the planned measures.

In the context of modern international processes, study of the establishment and im-provement of relations between states is gaining importance.

Keywordshistoriography, North Korea, Koreans, the Far East, democracy, diplomacy
Received09.12.2020
Publication date11.12.2020
Number of characters26556
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1 В течение трех последних десятилетий издано немало работ, освещающих различные аспекты истории стран Дальнего Востока: общество, территорию, национальные отношения, взаимодействие государств на разных этапах исторического развития и др. Это в полной мере относится к истории отношений Северной Кореи и Советского Союза [Бугай, 1998; Ващук, Ермак, 2016; Ващук, 2018; Ким, 1993; Кузин, 2010(1–2), Мен, 2001].
2 Исследовались как экономика, промышленное производство, аграрная среда, так и сохранение самобытной корейской культуры. Показано, каким образом после изгнания японцев (1945) на территории Кореи начали складываться два самостоятельных государства. Эти темы рассматривались как в условиях существования единой Кореи, так и условиях функционирования двух самостоятельных государств на территории Корейского полуострова. Выявлены формы и методы взаимодействия этнических общностей на Дальнем Востоке. Тем не менее открытие новых архивных документов позволяет обратить внимание на вопросы, еще слабо разработанные в рамках данной темы. На изучении истории Северной Кореи сказывается и «закрытость» этой страны.
3 В предлагаемой статье рассматривается сотрудничество Северной Кореи и СССР в период войны 1950–1953 гг. Затрагивается также восстановительный период после Второй мировой войны. В этом сотрудничестве заметную роль сыграли советские корейцы, пережившие в 1937 г. принудительное переселение в Казахстан, республики Средней Азии и в Астраханский округ Сталинградской области (всего 172 тыс. граждан) [Бугай, 1998, с. 103, 111].
4 Вторая половина 1940-х гг. была чрезвычайно насыщена разного рода событиями. И в современных условиях они постоянно привлекают внимание, в них ощущается наличие какой-то тайны... С учетом международной обстановки и происков США, стремящихся к мировому господству под маской распространении «демократии», анализ событий того периода обретает особую актуальность.
5 Северная Корея относится к тем странам мира, жители которых не стремятся ни к отказу от своей самобытной культуры, ни к изменению традиций, обычаев, выработанных десятками поколений предков. В современных условиях КНДР остается блюстителем тех порядков, идейных жизненных установок, которые порождены сложными условиями ее существования, и последовательно выступает против навязывания чужих правил.
6 Изучением рассматриваемого периода истории Северной Кореи занимаются многие исследователи [Ланьков, 1995; Ли Ен Квон, 1996; Пять стран..., 2019]. Угроза войны на полуострове требовала прежде всего бо́льшего уровня консолидации, тесной сплоченности населения, концентрации усилий, всемерной поддержки сформировавшейся государственности, в которой нация оказалась разрезана географической параллелью на две части, каждая из которых избрала свой собственный путь развития.

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