The history of the formation of national models of chemical profession

Publication type Article
Status Published
Affiliation: S. I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Russian Federation, 125315, Moscow, Ul. Baltiyskaya, 14
Journal nameVoprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki
EditionVolume 40 4

The paper reviews some aspects of the process of formation of the chemical professional communities in Germany, France, UK, USA, and Russia from the early 17 th to the second half of the 20 th century. The main emphasis is placed on the study into the most important elements of the system of cognitive institutionalization structures (research laboratories and chemical societies). These include chemical laboratories of scientific research centers, higher education institutions, and industrial enterprises as well as chemical societies engaged in both the fundamental and applied research. An approach is proposed for constructing the models of chemical profession. The paper examines the mechanism of the cognitive institutionalization structures’ functioning within national communities in particular space and time coordinates. It unites the chemists’ innovational activities and their professionalization and socialization into a single complex. A comparative historical analysis of national models of chemical profession is performed. The sociocultural, economicopolitical and cognitive institutionalization factors that determined the emergence and further development of research, education and production sphere in the developed countries are identified.

Keywordsprofessional community of chemists, cognitive institutionalization structures, chemists’ professional mobility, history of chemistry and chemical industry, Germany, France, UK, USA, Russia
Publication date16.12.2019
Number of characters33330
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