The history of the formation of national models of chemical profession

 
PIIS020596060007324-8-1
DOI10.31857/S020596060007324-8
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: S. I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Russian Federation, 125315, Moscow, Ul. Baltiyskaya, 14
Journal nameVoprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki
EditionVolume 40 4
Pages684-698
Abstract

The paper reviews some aspects of the process of formation of the chemical professional communities in Germany, France, UK, USA, and Russia from the early 17 th to the second half of the 20 th century. The main emphasis is placed on the study into the most important elements of the system of cognitive institutionalization structures (research laboratories and chemical societies). These include chemical laboratories of scientific research centers, higher education institutions, and industrial enterprises as well as chemical societies engaged in both the fundamental and applied research. An approach is proposed for constructing the models of chemical profession. The paper examines the mechanism of the cognitive institutionalization structures’ functioning within national communities in particular space and time coordinates. It unites the chemists’ innovational activities and their professionalization and socialization into a single complex. A comparative historical analysis of national models of chemical profession is performed. The sociocultural, economicopolitical and cognitive institutionalization factors that determined the emergence and further development of research, education and production sphere in the developed countries are identified.

Keywordsprofessional community of chemists, cognitive institutionalization structures, chemists’ professional mobility, history of chemistry and chemical industry, Germany, France, UK, USA, Russia
Received15.12.2019
Publication date16.12.2019
Number of characters33330
Cite  
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 1243

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Aleksandrov, D. A. (ed.) (2014) Nauka po-amerikanski: ocherki istorii [Science, American-Style: Historical Essays]. Moskva: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie.

2. Aris, R. (1977) Academic Engineering in an Historical Prospective, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Fundamentals, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1–10.

3. Beavers, E. M., and Nodine, B. F. (1985) Evolution of the Profession of Research Chemist in Industry, Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 728–733.

4. Brodskii, A. D. (1927) Razvitiee khimicheskoi promyshlennosti na Zapade i v Amerike [TheтDevelopment of Chemical Industry in the West and in the USA]. Moskva: Aviakhim.

5. Fell, U. (2000) Disziplin, Profession und Nation: die Ideologie der Chemie in Frankreich vom Zweiten Keiserreich bis in die Zwischenkriegzeit. Leipzig: Leipziger Universit ä tsverlag.

6. Gaidenko, P. P. (2000) Istoriia novoevropeiskoi filosofii v ee sviazi s naukoi: uchebnoe posobie dlia vuzov [The History of the New European Philosophy in Its Relation to Science: A Textbook for Higher Education Institutions]. Moskva: Per Se, and Sankt-Peterburg: Universitetskaia kniga.

7. Haber, L. (1958) The Chemical Industry During the Nineteenth Century: A Study of the Economic Aspects of Applied Chemistry in Europe and North America. New York: Oxford University Press.

8. Khoffmann, R. (Hoffmann, R.) (1990) Issledovanie ili prepodavanie [Research or Teaching], Zhurnal Vsesoiuznogo khimicheskogo obshchestva, no. 3, pp. 84–87.

9. Kozlov, V. V. (1971) Vsesoiuznoe khimicheskoe obshchestvo imeni D. I. Mendeleeva (1868–1968) [D. I. Medeleev All-Union Chemical Society]. Moskva: Nauka.

10. Le Shatel’e, A. (Le Ch â telier, H.) (1928) Nauka i promyshlennost’ [Science and Industry]. Moskva: Tekhnika upravleniia. Our Origins, https://www.rsc.org/about-us/our-history/our-origins/.

11. Rodnyi, A. N. (2005) Protsess formirovaniia professional’nogo soobshchestva khimikov-tekhnologov (konets XVIII v. – pervaia polovina XX v.) [The Process of Formation of the Professional Chemical Engineering Community (Late 18 th – First Half of the 20 th Century)]. Moskva: IIET RAN, 2005.

12. Rodnyi, A. N. (2013) Nekotorye tendentsii v istorii professional’nogo soobshchestva khimikov [Some Trends in the History of the Professional Chemical Community], Sotsiologiia nauki i tekhnologii, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 39–59.

13. Rodnyi, A. N. (2015) Lichnost’ akademika V. N. Ipat’eva: formirovanie obraza uchenogo v sotsiume [Academician V. N. Ipatiev’s Personality: The Formation of the Image of Scientist among the Society], in: Baturin, Iu. M. (ed.) Institut istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki im. S. I. Vavilova. Godichnaia nauchnaia konferentsiia (2015) [S. I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology. Annual Scientific Conference (2015)]. Moskva: LENAND, vol. 1, pp. 49–62.

14. Schmauderer, E. (ed.) Der Chemiker im Wandel der Zeiten. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie, 1973.

15. Sonnemann, R., and Etzold, H. (1965) Patent and Monopol. Eine Studie zur Herausbildung von Monopolen unter dem Einfluss des Patentwesens, Jahrbuch f ü r Wirtschafts-geschichte, part 1, pp. 121–129.

16. Thackray, A., Sturchio, J., Caroll, P., and Bud, R. (1985) Chemistry in America, 1876–1976: Historical Indicators. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.

17. Uikkenden, V. E. (Wickenden, W. E.) (1934) Sravnitel’nyi ocherk tekhnicheskogo obrazovaniia v Evrope i SShA [A Comparative Study of Engineering Education in the United States and in Europe]. Moskva and Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo NKTP, 1934.

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up