COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges and Opportunities for Russian and American Public Diplomacy

 
PIIS268667300015221-3-1
DOI10.31857/S268667300015221-3
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameUSA & Canada: ekonomika, politika, kultura
EditionIssue 6
Pages89-110
Abstract

The article examines to what extent did the COVID-19 pandemic affect Russian and American public diplomacy. Author analyzes the informational dimension of relationship crisis between Russia and the U.S. as well as the state of their respective national public diplomacy systems, identifying stagnation of American public diplomacy after the end of Cold War and revival of Russian public diplomacy in 2000s. Significant part of the article is dedicated to analysis of new aspects of public diplomacy, which have occurred during pandemic: international humanitarian aid against coronavirus and vaccine’s race. Author examines how both Russian and American public diplomacies were able to exploit those aspects. In addition, article studies the reforms of public diplomacy institutions that took place in 2020. Author analyzes various data: public opinion polls, statistical researches, interview with politicians, public departments’ reports, press-releases of international organizations, acts of national laws, scientific works of Russian and international experts on international relations and public diplomacy. Article draws several conclusions. First, the COVID-19 pandemic has not changed relationship between Russia and the U.S. in terms of their rivalry in the global informational sphere. Pandemic as a factor has only highlighted already existing trends in the public diplomacy of both countries: positive dynamics for Russia and negative dynamics for the USA. Thus, in terms of image-improving Russian public diplomacy has gained more from opportunities related to pandemic, than American public diplomacy. If the trend remains, Russian public diplomacy has positive future prospects. American dynamics will directly depend on the activity of the new administration in reforming public diplomacy institutions. The reinforcement of anti-Russian rhetoric in the framework of global promotion of liberal democratic values might become a serious challenge for Russian public diplomacy.

Keywordspublic diplomacy, soft power, informational war, Russian-American relations, pandemic, COVID-19, humanitarian aid, vaccines, reforms
AcknowledgmentArtamonova U.Z. COVID-19 pandemic: challenges and opportunities for Russian and American public diplomacy. USA & Canada: Economics, Politics, Culture 2021; 51 (6) 89-110. DOI: 10.31857/S268667300015221-3
Received09.04.2021
Publication date07.06.2021
Number of characters43453
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ВВЕДЕНИЕ

2 Пандемия COVID-19 стала беспрецедентным событием в современной истории, влияние которого на все аспекты жизни общества учёные, вероятно, будут изучать ещё много лет. Однако некоторые аспекты международных отношений остались, по сути, неизменны.
3 Охлаждение отношений России и США в последние годы часто сравнивают с эпохой биполярности и даже называют «новой холодной войной» [Legvold R. 2016], «странной холодной войной» [Безруков А.О. и Сушенцов А.А. 2020]. Рост напряжённости во взаимоотношениях двух государств является прямым следствием того, как окончилась холодная война 1946–1990 гг. и как каждая из стран выстраивала свою внешнеполитическую стратегию впоследствии. В то время как США продвигали идею западноцентричного миропорядка, основанного на американском доминировании (Шаклеина Т.А. 2019), Россия постепенно перешла от стремления интегрироваться в западный мир (Богатуров А.Д. 2007) к попыткам выстраивать независимую внешнеполитическую линию (Журавлёва В.Ю. 2017). Эти взаимоисключающие векторы развития спровоцировали взаимное разочарование и растущее недоверие, которые во многом создали почву для нового обострения. Последующие столкновения геополитических интересов либо разное видение глобальных проблем и путей их разрешения (кризис на Украине, война в Сирии) [Войтоловский Ф.Г. 2015] ускорили деградацию двусторонних отношений, финальным аккордом которой стали обвинения РФ во вмешательстве в американские президентские выборы 2016 г., кризис системы контроля над вооружениями, установление санкционного режима в отношении России.
4 На фоне обострения противоречий и ухудшения российско-американских отношений основным «полем боя», где обе страны стремятся отстоять свою точку зрения (и правоту) в глазах мирового сообщества, стала информационная сфера. Именно здесь сегодня формируется имидж государства, его восприятие участниками международных процессов, а значит и его возможности повлиять на поведение других. Одновременно именно информационное поле даёт возможность установить, какой эффект оказала пандемия на публичную дипломатию России и США и каким образом это может повлиять на существующий кризис в их взаимоотношениях.
5 Гипотеза автора заключается в том, что коронавирус не оказал существенного влияния на данный аспект политики России и США. Все риски и возможности, образовавшиеся для публичной дипломатии каждого из этих государств, являются логическим следствием того состояния, в котором находились национальные системы публичной дипломатии в последние десятилетия, и тех тенденций по изменению международного имиджа России и США, которые можно было наблюдать в последние годы.
6 Для обоснования выдвинутой гипотезы ставится ряд задач: изучить роль публичной дипломатии в российско-американских отношениях в период кризиса; проанализировать состояния национальных систем публичной дипломатии после окончания холодной войны и выявить динамику; очертить спектр влияния пандемии на публичную дипломатию; выявить новые направления деятельности государств, вносящие вклад в укрепление их международного имиджа; оценить, насколько внушительные репутационные дивиденды получили Россия и США от инициатив по борьбе с коронавирусом; соотнести полученные данные с институциональными преобразованиями в сфере публичной дипломатии каждой из стран и сделать вывод о степени влияния пандемии на соответствующие реформы.

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