The Origins of Cognitive-Behavioral Psychology in the Work of V. M. Bekhterev “Consciousness and Its Boundaries”

Publication type Article
Status Published
Occupation: Professor of the Department of clinical psychology and psychology of personality of the Institute of Psychology and Education
Affiliation: Kazan (Volga region) Federal University
Address: Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia
Occupation: Associate professor of the Department of general psychology of the Institute of Psychology and Education
Affiliation: Kazan (Volga region) Federal University
Address: Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia
Journal namePsikhologicheskii zhurnal
EditionVolume 43 Issue 1

The main stages of V.M. Bekhterev's scientific work related to the construction of a model of consciousness are shown. V.M. Bekhterev, as the founder of neuroscience, considered a person as a psychophysiological phenomenon and defined the brain with its neural organization as a central psychophysiological organ, the cognition of which should be done comprehensively. Consciousness, with its ability to reflect the surrounding world, adapt to it and transform it, was defined by him as the most important factor of behavior. The model of consciousness proposed by V.M. Bekhterev included six forms of its manifestation, creating a six-stage structure. From the standpoint of modern cognitive-behavioral psychology, it is necessary to distinguish the spatial-temporal, personal-moral and reflexive substructures (layers) of consciousness. The representations of space and the consciousness of time create a space-time layer of consciousness. The temporal part of this layer reflects the effective, and the spatial part reflects the productive side of consciousness. Representation is a common element of consciousness. In the understanding of V.M. Bekhterev's representation combines both the image of perception, and the memory image, and the concept, and the state. The source of activity of all living things, including consciousness and the unconscious sphere, is determined by the hidden energy-the potential that accumulates in the body when exposed to a living being from outside and from within. The concept of consciousness by V.M. Bekhterev in a compressed form contains ideas about the future elements of the cognitive-behavioral theory. These are spatial-temporal representations, the determination of cognition and behavior by external and internal conditions, the energy source of activity, the transformation of steps into a level organization, the susceptibility of cognitive structures to development and destruction ("reverse metamorphosis"), the combination of analyticity and integrity, reflected in his slogan – "To know a person and help him".

Keywordshistory of psychology, cognitive-behavioral psychology, V.M. Bekhterev, consciousness, model, space, time, energy
AcknowledgmentThe study was supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (Project No. 19-18-00253 “Neural network psychometric model of cognitive-behavioral predictors of life activity of a person on the basis of social networks”).
Publication date01.03.2022
Number of characters33613
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