Leisure activity of children and adolescents as indicator of their well-being

 
PIIS020595920016034-3-1
DOI10.31857/S020595920016034-3
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Junior research assistant
Affiliation: FSBSI “Scientific Research Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine”
Address: Novosibirsk, Timakova street, 4
Occupation: Senior Researcher
Affiliation: FSBSI “Scientific Research Institute of Neurosciences and Medicine”
Address: Novosibirsk-117, a / I 237 Timakova st. 4
Journal namePsikhologicheskii zhurnal
EditionVolume 42 issue 4
Pages74-85
Abstract

A leisure activity of children and adolescents is one of the factors of their well-being and health. The impact of leisure is based on experiencing positive emotions and establishing relationships with other people, as well as on moderating stress and its effects. Nowadays online learning for children is expanding, variety of classes and sections is becoming more accessible and diversified, the outdoor time decreased while screen time increased. Understanding of how children spend their time and how it relates to their health and well-being is an actual problem of the current scientific knowledge, the research on this problem makes it possible to assess child quality of life, to predict successful development of children during their growing up and to develop recommendations for parents and teachers. The aim of the study is to review the results and findings of the studies on the structure and factors of the leisure activity of children and adolescents as indicator of their well-being. It has been shown that leisure activity of children and adolescents is an important factor of successful development. Children's and adolescents' use of time differs depending on the socio-demographic characteristics of family and child gender. Leisure activities are associated with such indicators of successful development as emotional and behavioral problems, academic achievement, somatic health, cognitive function, life satisfaction and self-esteem. However, the nature of the identified patterns, the causal relationships and the role of children individual characteristics in the relationship between leisure activities and child outcomes remains unclear.

Keywordstime spending, children, adolescents, family, child well-being, child health, leisure activities
AcknowledgmentThis work was partially supported by grants from the Russian Science Foundation No. 16-18-00003 (preparation of the article) and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research No. 19-013-00034 (data analysis)
Received02.08.2021
Publication date14.08.2021
Number of characters30271
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1 В последние годы исследователи все больше признают важность изучения множества социальных сред, в которых растут и проводят время дети и подростки, отмечая их влияние на благополучное развитие [12, 20, 26]. На сегодняшний день в мировой литературе достаточно хорошо изучены такие факторы благополучия детей как индивидуальные особенности ребенка, характеристики ближайшего семейного окружения, в особенности отношения с родителями, характеристики домашней среды, опыт жизни в детском саду и школе [3, 7, 37, 42], однако в последнее время все больше осознается важность изучения еще одного контекста жизни детей и подростков – их занятий в свободное время [20]. Российские исследования малочисленны, носят фрагментарный характер и не раскрывают в полной мере структуры занятий детей и их связи с благополучным развитием; в целом, имеющейся русскоязычной литературы недостаточно для всестороннего изучения проблемы времяпрепровождения детей и подростков. Имеются социологические исследования о структуре досуга [1, 2], в том числе внутрисемейного [4, 9], есть данные о взаимосвязи внутрисемейных занятий с удовлетворенностью жизнью детей [6], но не изучены связи с показателями психического здоровья и благополучия.
2 Под досугом подразумевают добровольную деятельность, как активную, так и пассивную, которой занимаются в свободное от работы или обучения время для развлечения, восстановления физических и психических сил, развития, творчества и самосовершенствования [5, 9, 24]. В данной работе понятия “досуг” и “времяпрепровождение” будут использоваться как синонимичные. Досуг предполагает свободно выбранные занятия, исходя из индивидуальных интересов [24], однако детские занятия часто выбирают родители, что является значимой отличительной особенностью времяпрепровождения детей в отличие от взрослых [26]. Досуг, включая его социальные аспекты, такие как дружба, играет важную роль с точки зрения чувства собственного достоинства детей [23], вносит прямой вклад в психологическое благополучие и здоровье, основанный на переживании положительных эмоций и установлении отношений с другими людьми, а также смягчает стресс и его последствия [22].
3 Исследователи из европейских и североамериканских стран активно изучают времяпрепровождение детей и предлагают различные классификации занятий в свободное время [24, 25, 26], исследуют взаимосвязи времяпрепровождения с такими важными результирующими показателями как психическое здоровье [17, 19, 20, 25, 32, 40, 43], адаптивные способности [25], соматическое здоровье [39], когнитивные способности [18], академическая успеваемость [25, 32], субъективное благополучие [6, 26]. Открытым остается вопрос, имеется ли прямая связь между временем организованной досуговой активности и благополучием ребенка или наилучшим вариантом является средний уровень занятости ребенка [23]; данный вопрос приобретает особую остроту в связи с тем, что вид и насыщенность досуговых занятий детей во многом определяется их родителями, что влечет за собой некоторые отличительные особенности. Исследователи также изучают факторы, влияющие на различия в занятиях детей: пол ребенка, уровень образования и профессиональный статус родителей, тип семьи, социально-экономический статус семьи и уровень дохода, полная или частичная занятость матери, культурная принадлежность, тип населенного пункта и развитость социально-культурной инфраструктуры места проживания [9, 13, 21, 25].

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