Differences in brain support for solving analytical and holistic problems

Publication type Article
Status Published
Occupation: Junior researcher at Shvyrkov’s laboratory of Psychophysiology, IP RAS, research fellow at laboratory of neurocognitive studies of individual experience, MGPPU, junior researcher at international laboratory of social neuroscience, HSE, senior lecturer, GA
Affiliation: State Academic University for the Humanities, Institute of Psychology RAS, Moscow State Psychological-and Pedagogical University, HSE University
Address: Moscow, Maronovskiy per., 26, Russia
Occupation: Master student
Affiliation: State Academic University for the Humanities
Address: Maronovskiy per., 26, Russia
Occupation: Master student
Affiliation: State Academic University for the Humanities
Address: Maronovskiy per., 26, Russia
Occupation: Head of Shvyrkov’s laboratory of Psychophysiology, IP RAS, head of laboratory of neurocognitive studies of individual experience, MGPPU, chief science officer at international laboratory of social neuroscience, HSE, head of psychophysiology chair, GAUGN
Affiliation: State Academic University for the Humanities, Institute of Psychology RAS, Moscow State Psychological-and Pedagogical University, HSE University
Address: Maronovskiy per., 26
Journal namePsikhologicheskii zhurnal
EditionVolume 42 issue 2

Topical issue was to study the system organization of experience which ensures the solution of analytical and holistic tasks. It was assumed that the set of functional systems that are updated to solve various problems differs which is manifested in brain activity and these differences are mediated by whether an analytical or holistic individual solves a task of “his" type or not. A study of brain support for the process of analytical and holistic task’ solving by representatives of the analytical and holistic subpopulations of Russian culture was conducted (N = 52). It was shown that holistic problems are solved faster and more correctly than analytical ones which is consistent with the idea of the holistic nature of Russian culture. At the same time, as learning progressed, there was an improvement in performance in tasks of the "non-own" type, i.e., holistic tasks in analytical individuals, and vice versa, in comparison with tasks specific to the mentality of individuals. The differences between the components of event-related potentials that arise when solving problems of different types by analytical and holistic individuals are obtained including the P300 sub-peaks when solving an analytical problem by analytical individuals. The obtained differences in event-related potentials are compared with the criteria of analytical and holistic problems that we identified earlier. The directions of further research of the learning process in individuals with different mentalities are discussed.

Keywordsanalyticity, holism, EEG, BSC, problem solving
AcknowledgmentThe primary analysis of behavioral characteristics was carried out under the support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (No. 0159-2020-0001), analysis of differences in brain providing decision-making process was carried out with the financial support of the research project “Social aspects of individual experience formation in the ontogenetic development”, MGPPU
Publication date04.04.2021
Number of characters35336
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 4, views: 1238

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Aleksandrov I.O., Maksimova N.E. Tipologiya medlennyh potencialov mozga, nejronal'naya aktivnost' i dinamika sistemnoj organizacii povedeniya. EEG i nejronal'naya aktivnost' v psihofiziologicheskih issledovaniyah. Eds. V.B. SHvyrkov, V.M. Rusalov, D.G. SHevchenko. Moscow: Nauka, 1987. P. 44–72. (in Russian)

2. Aleksandrov YU.I. Regressiya. Sed'maya mezhdunarodnaya konferenciya po kognitivnoj nauke. Tezisy dokladov. Ed. YU.I. Aleksandrov, K.V. Anohin. Moscow: Izd-vo “Institut psihologii RAN”, 2016. P. 100–101. (in Russian)

3. Aleksandrov YU.I., Apanovich V.V. Znachenie mezh- i vnutrikul'turnyh mental'nyh variacij. Nelinejnaya dinamika v kognitivnyh issledovaniyah – 2019 : trudy VI Vserossijskoj konferencii. Ed. V.A. Antonec, S.B. Parin, V.G. YAhno. Nizhnij Novgorod: IPF RAN, 2019. (in Russian)

4. Aleksandrov YU.I., Gorkin A.G., Sozinov A.A., Svarnik O.E., Kuzina E.A., Gavrilov V.V. Konsolidaciya i rekonsolidaciya pamyati: psihofiziologicheskij analiz. Voprosy psihologii. 2015. № 3. P. 133–144. (in Russian)

5. Aleksandrov YU.I., Sams M., Lavikajnen YU., Rejnikajnen K., Naatanen R. Zavisimost' svojstv svyazannyh s sobytiyami potencialov ot vozrasta elementov sub"ektivnogo opyta, aktualiziruemyh pri kategorizacii slov rodnogo i inostrannogo yazykov. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal. 1997. T. 18. №1. P. 133–145. (in Russian)

6. Aleksandrov YU.I., Svarnik O.E., Znamenskaya I.I., Kolbeneva M.G., Arutyunova K.R., Krylov A.K., Bulava A.I. Regressiya kak etap razvitiya. Moscow: Kogito-Centr, 2017. (in Russian)

7. Anohin P.K. Problema prinyatiya resheniya v psihologii i fiziologii. Voprosy psihologii. 1974. № 4. P. 21–29. (in Russian)

8. Apanovich V.V., Znakov V.V., Aleksandrov YU.I. Aprobaciya shkaly analitichnosti–holistichnosti na rossijskoj vyborke. Psikhologicheskii zhurnal. 2017. V. 38. № 5. P. 80–96. (in Russian)

9. Apanovich V.V., Tishchenko A.G., Znakov V.V., Aleksandrov YU.I. Konstruirovanie blokov analiticheskih i holisticheskih zadach i ih empiricheskaya proverka. Voprosy psihologii. 2020. V. 66. № 4. P. 142–154. (in Russian)

10. Bezdenezhnyh B.N. Psihofiziologicheskie zakonomernosi vzaimodejstviya funkcional'nyh sistem pri realizacii deyatel'nosti. Avtoref. ... d.psihol.n. Moscow, 2004. (in Russian)

11. Bezdenezhnyh B.N., Pashina A.H. Struktura EEG aktivnosti pri pechatanii predlozheniya na pishushchej mashinke. EEG i nejronal'naya aktivnost' v psihofiziologicheskih issledovaniyah. Moscow: Nauka, 1987. P. 185–197. (in Russian)

12. Gavrilov V.V. Sootnoshenie EEG i impul'snoj aktivnosti nejronov v povedenii u krolika. EEG i nejronal'naya aktivnost' v psihofiziologicheskih issledovaniyah. Eds. V.B. SHvyrkov, V.M. Rusalov, D.G. SHevchenko. Moscow: Nauka, 1987. P. 33–43. (in Russian)

13. Znakov V.V. Psihologiya ponimaniya mira cheloveka. Moscow: Izd-vo “Institut psihologii RAN”, 2016. (in Russian)

14. Kornilova T.V., Tihomirov O.K. Prinyatie intellektual'nyh reshenij v dialoge s komp'yuterom. Moscow: Iz-vo MGU, 1992. (in Russian)

15. Ponomaryov YA.A. Metodologicheskoe vvedenie v psihologiyu. Moscow: Nauka, 1983. (in Russian)

16. SHvyrkov V.B. Vvedenie v ob"ektivnuyu psihologiyu: nejronal'nye osnovy psihiki. Moscow: Izd-vo “Institut psihologii RAN”, 1995. (in Russian)

17. SHvyrkov V.B., Pashina A.H. K voprosu o sokrashchenii vremeni reakcii v obuchenii. Teoriya funkcional'nyh sistem v fiziologii i psihologii. Moscow: Nauka, 1978. P. 347–357. (in Russian)

18. Alexandrov Yu.I., Klucharev V., Sams M. Effect of emotional context in auditorycortex processing. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 2007. V. 65. No. 3. P. 261–271.

19. Alexandrov Yu.I., Sams M., Lavikainen J, Reinikainen K., Naatanen R. Differential effects of alcohol on the cortical processing of foreign and native language. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 1998, V. 28. P. 1–10.

20. Apanovich V.V., Bezdenezhnykh B.N., Sams M., Jääskeläinen I.P., AlexandrovYu.I. Event-related potentials during individual, cooperative, and competitive task performance differ in subjects with analytic vs. holistic thinking. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 2018. V. 123. P. 136–142.

21. Bacha-Trams M., Alexandrov Y.I., Broman E., Glerean E., Kauppila M., Kauttonen J., Ryyppö E., Sams M., Jääskeläinen I.P. A drama movie activates brains of holistic and analytical thinkers differentially. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience. 2018. V. 13. No. 12. P. 1293–1304.

22. Barton J., Haslett T. Analysis, synthesis, systems thinking and the scientific method: rediscovering the importance of open systems. Systems Research and Behavioral Science: The Official Journal of the International Federation for Systems Research. 2007. V. 24. No. 2. P. 143–155.

23. Bjornsdottir R.T., Rule N.O. Cultural neuroscience. Advances in Culturally-Aware Intelligent Systems and in Cross-Cultural Psychological Studies. Springer, Cham, 2018. P. 265–282.

24. de Oliveira S., Nisbett R.E. Culture changes how we think about thinking: From “Human Inference” to “Geography of Thought”. Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2017. V. 12. No. 5. P. 782–790.

25. Hari R., Henriksson L., Malinen S., Parkonnen L. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function. Neuron. 2015. V. 88. P. 181–193.

26. Hari R., Sams M., Nummenmaa L. Attending and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology. The royal society publishing, 2016.

27. Hedden T., Ketay S. Aron A., Markus H.R., Gabrieli J. Cultural influences on neural substrates of attentional control. Psychological science. 2008. V. 19. No. 1. P. 12–17.

28. Hyde L.W., Tompson S., Creswell J.D., Falk E.B. Cultural neuroscience: new directions as the field matures. Culture and Brain. 2015. V. 3, No. 2. P. 75–92.

29. Kerby D.S. The simple difference formula: An approach to teaching nonparametric correlation. Comprehensive Psychology. 2014. V. 3.

30. Kitayama S., Duffy S., Kawamura T., Larsen J.T. Perceiving an object and it's context in different cultures: a cultural look at new look. Psychological science. 2003. V. 14. No. 3. P. 201–206.

31. Masuda T., Nisbett R.E. Attending holistically versus analytically: comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Journal of personality and social psychology. 2001. V. 81. No. 5. P. 922–934

32. Pacini R., Epstein S. The relation of Rational and Experiental Information Processing Styles to Personality, Basic Beliefs and the Ratio-Bias Phenomenon. Journ. of Personality and social Psychology. 1999. V. 76. No. 6. P. 972–987.

33. Parsons R.G. Behavioral and neural mechanisms by which prior experience impacts subsequent learning //Neurobiology of learning and memory. 2018. V. 154. P. 22–29.

34. Polich J. Updating P300: an integrative theory of P3a and P3b. Clinical neurophysiology. 2007. V. 118. No. 10. P. 2128–2148.

35. Polich J., Criado J. R. Neuropsychology and neuropharmacology of P3a and P3b. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 2006. V. 60. No. 2. P. 172–185.

36. Talhelm T., Zhang X., Oishi S., Shimin C., Duan D., Lan X., Kitayama S. Large-Scale Psychological Differences within China Explained by Rice Versus Wheat Agriculture. Science. 2014. V. 344. P. 603–608.

37. Uskul A.K., Kitayama S., Nisbett R.E. Ecocultural basis of cognition: Farmers and fishermen are more holistic than herders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2008. V. 105. No. 25. P. 8552–8556.

Система Orphus