Korean Rulers’ Inalienable Insignias: The Seals of the Yi Dynasty (1392-1910)

 
PIIS013128120019884-3-1
DOI10.31857/S013128120019884-3
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: National Research University Higher School of Economics
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameProblemy Dalnego Vostoka
EditionIssue 3
Pages140-151
Abstract

This article focuses on insignias that belonged to the Yi dynasty who ruled Joseon Kingdom (1392-1897) and the Korean empire (1897-1910). The main object of the study is the royal seals guksae, oksae and eobo.

Through the visual changes happened to the seals we examine how the status of the rulers of these states had been changing. Guksae and oksae were insignias symbolizing the status of the state. They belonged to the Yi clan while it had the state power. Eobo seals were inalienable insignias belonging to a specific person.

We divide Korean seals into three categories: -sae, -po, and less important —in. Every seal had its own role in the state ritual. Basing on the genesis of diplomatic relations between Korea and China, the article reveals that the seals of the —in type were sent to Joseon from China, but their status in Joseon was -sae (a.k.a. guksae, “state seal”). In the 1401-1894 the seals sent from China symbolized the subordination of the Korean ruler to emperor of China. After 1894, Korea became an independent country. In 1897 it proclaimed itself an empire. This changes influenced the appearance of the own Korean guksae.

 

The study is based on a research conducted in 2017-2018 in the Republic of Korea, electronic catalogues of museums in the Republic of Korea, and the royal chronicles Joseon wanjo sillok.

KeywordsJoseon, Daehan jeguk, royal seals, symbols of power, guksae, eobo
Received01.03.2022
Publication date21.06.2022
Number of characters29459
Cite  
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 594

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Chesnokova N.A. Diplomatiia na grani fola: “vernost’”, “dolg” i “sadae” v Koree v XVII-XVIII vv. (On the rough edges of diplomacy. “Loyalty”, “debt” and “sadae” in the 17th-18th centuries in Korea). Vestnik RGGU. Seria: Politologiia, istoriia, mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia. 2017. No. 2 (8). (In Russ.)

2. Popova I.F. Sakralizatsiia vlasti v traditsionnom Kitae (Sacralization of power in traditional China). Sakralizatsiia vlasti v istorii tsivilizatsiyi. Institut Afriki RAN. M.: Centr civilizacionnyh i regional'nyh issledovanij, 2005. (In Russ.)

3. Simbirtseva T.M. Vladyki staroi Korea (Rulers of the Old Korea). Moscow: RSUH, 2012. (Orientalia et Classica. Trudy Instituta vostochnykh kul'tur i antichnosti, vyp. 35). (In Russ.)

4. Sokolov-Remizov S.N. Literatuta. Kalligrafiia. Zhivopis. (Literature. Calligraphy. Art). Moscow: Nauka, 1985. (In Russ.)

5. “Fake royal seal” controversy mars special exhibition. The Korea Herald. August 14, 2017. URL: http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20170824000729 (accessed: 20.06.2021).

6. Breuker Remco. Koryǒ as an Independent Realm: The Emperor’s Clothes? Korean Studies. Hawai’i: University of Hawai’i Press, 2004. Vol. 27.

7. Shin Myung-ho. Joseon Royal Court Culture: Ceremonial and Daily Life / trans. Timothy V. Atkinson. Paju: Dolbegae Publishers, 2004.

8. Cultural Heritage Administration discovers Deokjong Eobo is not original. The Dong-A llbo. August 19, 2017. URL: https://www.donga.com/en/article/all/20170819/1031428/1/Cultural-Heritage-Administration-discovers-Deokjong-Eobo-is-not-original (accessed: 20.06.2021).

9. Royal Seal and Investiture Book Collection of the Joseon Dynasty. UNESCO. 2017. URL: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/mow/nomination_forms/korea_joseon_eng.pdf (accessed: 05.05.2021).

10. Seal of the Emperor: The Symbol of the Korean Empire. Google Arts & Culture. URL: https://artsandculture.google.com/exhibit/seal—of—the—emperor—the—symbol—of—the—korean—empire/8gKy0xMWRpXAJQ (accessed: 02.07.2021).

11. Seals from Joseon era are returned to Korea. Korea JoongAng Daily. February 19, 2020. URL: https://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/2020/02/19/koreanHeritage/Seals-from-Joseon-era-are-returned-to-Korea/3074045.html (accessed: 18.06.2021).

12. “혹시 이 인장이 한국 것이냐” — 황제 국새 기구한 운명 (Is this seal Korean? — The Destiny of Korean Emperial guksae). The JoongAng. February 22, 2020. URL: https://news.joins.com/article/23712660 (accessed: 02.05.2021). (In Kor.)

13. 궁에서 왕을 만나다 (To Meet a King in a Palace). 서울: 국립고궁박물관, 2013. (In Kor.)

14. 박윤성, 김지수. 조선시대 어보 수강태황제보 (壽康太皇帝寶) 서체 형태 연구 (Park Y.S., Kim J.S. Research of the Joseon State Sugang Taehwangjebo 壽康太皇帝寶 Eobo Typeface). Journal of Digital Convergence. 2019. 권. 17. 호. 11. (In Kor.)

15. 성인근. 조선시대와 대한제국기 國璽의 변화상. (Seong Ingun. The Changes of the National Symbols in Joseon and Korean Empire). 역사와실학. 2008. 권 36. (In Kor.)

16. 윤대원. 1910-년 병합 ‘칙유’의 文書上의 결함과 불법성. 규장각 한국학 연구원 (Yun Daewon. The Defect and Illegal Characteristic of 1910 Emperor Sunjong’s Imperial Instruction on the Transfer of Sovereign Rights to Japan). 한국문화. 서울, 2011. 권 53. (In Kor.)

17. 이찬희, 박준형. 국립고궁박물관 소장 조선왕조 옥책의 암석학적 특징과 산지검토 (Lee Ch.H., Park J.H. Lithological Characteristics and Provenance Consideration on the Jade Investiture Books of Joseon Dynasty in National Palace Museum of Korea). 자원환경지질. 서울, 2019. 권 52. 호 5. (In Kor.)

18. 조선왕조실록. (The Joseon Wangjo Sillok Annals). 국사편찬위원회. URL: http://sillok.history.go.kr/ (accessed: 03.04.2021). (In Kor.)

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up