Current Studies on Intergroup Ideologies: Assimilationism, Colorblindness, Multiculturalism, Polyculturalism

 
PIIS086904990002755-2-1
DOI10.31857/S086904990002755-2
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Junior Research Fellow, International Laboratory for Socio-Cultural Research, National Research University “Higher School of Economics
Affiliation: National Research University “Higher School of Economics”
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Occupation: Junior Research Fellow
Affiliation: International Laboratory for Socio-Cultural Research, National Research University “Higher School of Economics”
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameObshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost
EditionIssue 1
Pages143-155
Abstract

Nowadays the problems of ethnic, cultural and religious diversity have become the central issue of public discourse in different countries. Recently social psychologists paid special attention to ideological attitudes which may be crucial for intergroup relations and harmonization of interethnic relations, the reduction of prejudice. The most common intergroup ideologies: all assimilationism, colorblindness, multiculturalism and policulturalism. All them can be found in society at the same time, depending on to socio-political situation, however one can dominate. The maintenance of one ideology has ambiguous implications for intergroup relations harmonization and for reduction of prejudice. There is a need for further research with the account of local contexts           

Keywordsintergroup ideology, assimilationism, colorblindness, multiculturalism, policulturalism, interethnic relations, cultural diversity
Received14.03.2019
Publication date15.03.2019
Number of characters24223
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1 Главная задача, стоящая сегодня перед многими странами, заключается в создании социального климата, в котором могут гармонично сосуществовать представители разных этнических групп. Следует ли подчеркивать их сходство и общие основания или, наоборот, признать, что существуют важные групповые различия? Какая политика может быть эффективной в борьбе с предубеждениями и межгрупповой дискриминацией? Социальные психологи и социологи работают над этими вопросами уже несколько десятилетий [Green, Staerklé 2013]. Тем не менее исследования, посвященные изучению межгрупповых идеологий, в определенной степени определяющих межгрупповые отношения и поведение, появились сравнительно недавно [Rattan, Ambady 2013; Sasaki, Vorauer 2013]. Мы попытаемся обобщить теоретические представления о последствиях одобрения ассимиляционизма, этнического дальтонизма, мультикультурализма и поликультурализма в аспекте межгрупповых отношений, представив обзор исследований, призванных объяснить, почему и как данные межгрупповые идеологии могут оказывать существенное воздействие на межгрупповые отношения и поведение. Наш анализ основан не только на психологических теориях и эмпирических исследованиях, но и на конкретной практике реализации принципов данных идеологий в рамках государственной политики некоторых стран.
2 Современные межгруппные идеологии: исключение, игнорирование или принятие многообразия?
3 Для решения проблем, связанных с культурным многообразием и проблемами гражданской и национальной идентичности, страны формируют некоторые формальные и неформальные правила и политику в отношении мигрантов. В результате возникает множество убеждений и каждая их группа превращается в более или менее целостную межгрупповую идеологию, которая предполагает определенные правила и нормы отношений членов доминирующих социальных групп к другим группам в данном обществе. Межгрупповые идеологии определяют способы поддержания межгрупповых отношений в культурно многообразных обществах [Rattan, Ambady 2013]. Исходя из признания сложности социальной реальности, они, вероятно, имеют много общего с тем, что С. Московичи называл “социальными представлениями” [Plaut 2002].
4 Впервые особое внимание на это было обращено при разработке шкалы измерения отношения к мультикультурализму и использовании термина “мультикультурная идеология” [Berry, Kalin, Taylor 1977]. Данные авторы различали три основные идеологии: ассимиляцию, мультикультурализм и сегрегацию. Аналогично Б. Парк и С. Джадд писали о “идеологических перспективах”, которые определяют отношения между членами различных этнических групп. Помимо трех упомянутых выше идеологий они предложили также идеологию этнического дальтонизма [Park, Judd 2005].
5 В чистом виде межгрупповые идеологии, как правило, не представлены, скорее, они сосуществуют, но та или иная идеология становится доминирующей в зависимости от социально-политических условий. Например, идеи, связанные с политическим принципом Laïcité (секуляризации), приобрели большее значение в последние годы во Франции [Roebroeck, Guimond 2014].

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