The Foreign Policy Orientation of the Russian Officers and the Factors of the Formation and Failures of the White Movement: Formulating the Problem

 
PIIS013038640020233-4-1
DOI10.31857/S013038640020233-4
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Volga Region Institute of Management
Address: Russian Federation, Saratov
Affiliation: Institute of World History RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameNovaia i noveishaia istoriia
EditionIssue 3
Pages5-26
Abstract

The article examines the political and military orientation of the Russian officer corps after the October Revolution of 1917. Drawing on a wide range of ego-sources, the question is posed as to the validity of the widespread version of the outcome of the Civil War and the fate of the White Movement. The disintegration of the Russian army and the subsequent fragmentation of the vast body of the Russian Empire predetermined a change in the position on the “Russian question” of all the main participants in the Great War, above all Britain, France, Germany, and to a certain extent the United States and Japan. Military considerations dictated the active participation of these countries in the struggle around a potential Eastern Front on the territory of the former Romanov's Empire. The Russian officer corps was also forced to determine who they wanted to support – the German side, the Allies and/or the Soviets. The article provides a general characteristic of the composition and state of the corps by the autumn of 1917 and its further evolution, identifying the factors that predetermined this or that choice. The authors analyse the distribution of political and personal predilections of officers with regard to foreign policy orientation. They examine the full range of motivations for choosing an orientation in the circumstances of 1917–1918 and partly in 1919 for different categories of officers. The question of the motives of those officers who chose the path of “national” self-determination is addressed. Each case is illustrated with examples of prominent officers of the rank of general and officers of the staff. In conclusion, the authors chart the trajectories for further research on the subject of political orientations among Russian officers in exile, up to the end of the Second World War.

KeywordsWhite movement, Russian officer corps, foreign policy orientation, Civil War, Russia, Great War, Entente, Central Powers, intervention, Allies
Received08.03.2022
Publication date20.06.2022
Number of characters67916
Cite  
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 489

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. “Atamanshhina” i “partizanshhina” v Grazhdanskoj vojne: ideologija, voennoe uchastie i kadry [“Atamanshchinaˮ and “partisanshchinaˮ in the Civil War: ideology, military participation and personnel] / ed. A.V. Posadsky. Moskva, 2015. (In Russ.)

2. Ajrapetov O.R. Nemeckij pogrom v Moskve v ijune 1915 g. v kontekste boev na vneshnem i vnutrennem fronte [The German pogrom in Moscow in June 1915 in the context of the battles on the external and internal front] // Russkij Sbornik [Russian collection]. T. 8. Moskva, 2010. S. 112–144. (In Russ.)

3. Aksenov V.A. Sluhi, obrazy, jemocii. Massovye nastroenija rossijan v gody vojny i revoljucii [Rumors, images, emotions. Mass sentiments of Russians during the years of war and revolution]. Moskva, 2020. (In Russ.)

4. Barsukov E.Z. Moe voennoe proshloe [My military past]. Smolensk, 2018. (In Russ.)

5. Bugrov Ju.A. Ryl'sk. 1918 g. // Kurskij kraj [Kursk region]. 2001. № 1 (15). S. 42–50. (In Russ.)

6. Chernov V.M. Pered burej [Before the storm]. New York, 1953. (In Russ.)

7. Chernysh A.V. Na frontah Velikoj vojny. Vospominanija 1914–1918 [On the fronts of the Great War. Memoirs of 1914–1918]. Moskva, 2014. (In Russ.)

8. Ekabsons Je., Shherbinskis V. Uchastie latyshej v voennyh formirovanijah belyh vo vremja Grazhdanskoj vojny v Rossii 1917–1920 gg. [Participation of Latvians in White military formations during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1920] // Rossija i Baltija. Narody i strany. Vtoraja polovina XIX – 30-e gg. XX v. [Russia and the Baltic States. Peoples and countries. The second half of the 19th – 30s of the 20th century]. Moskva, 2000. S. 79–97. (In Russ.)

9. Etkina I. O potere Ukrainoj severnyh territorij Chernigovskoj gubernii [About the loss of the northern territories of Chernihiv province by Ukraine] // Novosti Chernigova [Chernihiv news]. 3.XI.2017. (In Russ.)

10. Ganin A., Evert I. “Ja sluzhil, no progljadel zhizn' s ee radostjami”. Poslerevoljucionnyj dnevnik i tjuremnye pis'ma generala A.E. Everta. 1918 g. [“I served, but I overlooked life with its joysˮ. The post-revolutionary diary and prison letters of General A.E. Evert. 1918] // Zhurnal rossijskih i vostochnoevropejskih istoricheskih issledovanij [Journal of Russian and Eastern European Historical Studies]. 2019. № 1 (16). S. 220–277. (In Russ.)

11. Ganin A.V. Bolgarin, zashhitivshij Rossiju: cud'ba Jordana Pehlivanova [The Bulgarian who defended Russia: the fate of Yordan Pehlivanov] // Russkij sbornik [Russian collection]. T. 11. Moskva, 2012. S. 255–336. (In Russ.)

12. Ganin A.V. “Mozg armii” v period “Russkoj Smuty”: stat'i i dokumenty [The brain of army during the Russian Civil War: articles and documents]. Moskva, 2013. (In Russ.)

13. Ganin A.V. Oficerskij korpus v gody Grazhdanskoj vojny v Rossii 1917–1922 [Officer Corps during the Civil War in Russia 1917–1922]. Moskva, 2018. (In Russ.)

14. Ganin A.V. Pervyj krasnyj boevoj general: Dmitrij Pavlovich Parskij [The first Red combat General: Dmitry Pavlovich Parsky] // Russkij sbornik [Russian collection]. T. 16. Moskva, 2014. S. 205–294. (In Russ.)

15. Ganin A.V. Rjazanskaja belaja gvardija [Ryasan white guard] // Belaja armija. Beloe delo [The white army. White matter]. № 26. Ekaterinburg, 2019. S. 5–8. (In Russ.)

16. Gen. Zalesskij P.I. Vozmezdie (Prichiny russkoj katastrofy) [Retaliation (Causes of the Russian catastrophe)]. Berlin, 1925. (In Russ.)

17. Ilovajskij V. God puti (Zhizn' Dobrovol'cheskoj Armii) [The Year of the Journey (The Life of the Volunteer Army)]. Rostov-na-Donu, 1919. (In Russ.)

18. Kalkin O.A. Na mjatezhnyh rubezhah Rossii. Ocherki o pskovichah – uchastnikah Belogo dvizhenija na Severo-Zapade v 1918–1922 gg. [On the rebellious borders of Russia. Essays on Pskov residents – participants of the White Movement in the North-West in 1918–1922]. Pskov, 2003. (In Russ.)

19. Kavtaradze A.G. Voennye specialisty na sluzhbe Respubliki Sovetov, 1917–1920 gg. [Military specialists in the service of the Soviet Republic]. Moskva, 1988. (In Russ.)

20. Kocjubinskij D.A. Russkij nacionalizm v nachale stoletija: rozhdenie i gibel' ideologii Vserossijskogo nacional'nogo sojuza [Russian nationalism at the beginning of the Century: the Birth and Death of the Ideology of the All-Russian National Union]. Moskva, 2001. (In Russ.)

21. Komendrovskij I.N. Dobrovol'cheskaja armija v bojah i pohodah. Kn. 2. Pervye pobedy. T. 1. Vtoroj Kubanskij pohod. 10.VI – 18.IX.18 g. [The Volunteer army in battles and campaigns. Book 2. The first victories. Vol. 1. The Second Kuban campaign. 10.VI – 18.IX.18]. Moskva, 2020. (In Russ.)

22. Lannik L.V. Posle Rossijskoj imperii [After the Russian Empire]. Sankt-Peterburg, 2020. (In Russ.)

23. Lannik L.V. Vesennij divertisment: k istorii germano-jestonskogo al'jansa v 1918 g. [Spring divertissement: towards the History of the German-Estonian Alliance in 1918] // [Journal of Russian and Eastern European Historical Studies]. № 1 (17). 2020. S. 25–41. (In Russ.)

24. M.O. Men'shikov. Materialy k biografii [M.O. Menshikov. Materials for a biography] // Rossijskij arhiv: Istorija Otechestva v svidetel'stvah i dokumentah XVIII–XX vv. [Russian Archive. The history of the Fatherland in certificates and documents of the 18th–20th centuries]. Vyp. 4. Moskva, 1993. S. 1–271. (In Russ.)

25. Mahrov P.S. V Beloj armii generala Denikina. Zapiski nachal'nika shtaba Glavnokomandujushhego Vooruzhennymi Silami Juga Rossii [In the White Army of General Denikin. Notes of the Chief of Staff of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the South of Russia]. Sankt-Peterburg, 1994. (In Russ.)

26. Manikovskij A.A. Boevoe snabzhenie russkoj armii v mirovuju vojnu [Military supply of the Russian army in the World War]. Moskva, 1937. (In Russ.)

27. Molchanov V.M. Bor'ba na vostoke Rossii i v Sibiri [Struggle in the East of Russia and in Siberia] // Belaja gvardija. Al'manah [The White Guard. Almanac]. № 1. Моskva, 1997. S. 45–49; № 2. Moskva, 1998. S. 33–38. (In Russ.)

28. Noks A. Vmeste s russkoj armiej. Dnevnik voennogo attashe. 1914–1917 [With the Russian army]. Moskva, 2021. (In Russ.)

29. Nosovich A.L. N845 Belyj agent v Krasnoj armii: Vospominanija, dokumenty, stat'i [N845 White agent in the Red Army: Memoirs, documents, articles] / ed. A.V. Ganina. Moskva; Sankt-Peterburg, 2021. (In Russ.)

30. Pavlov A.Ju. Sojuzniki i protivniki: franko-russkij sojuz v 1918 g. [Allies and opponents: the Franco-Russian Union in 1918] // Istoricheskie issledovanija [Historical research]. № 15. 2020. S. 227–236. (In Russ.)

31. Posadskij A.V. V.K. Manakin i Saratovskij korpus. Epizod Grazhdanskoj vojny [V.K. Manakin and the Saratov Corps. Episode of the Civil War]. Moskva, 2018. (In Russ.)

32. Pribaltika mezhdu dvumja revoljucijami [The Baltic States between two revolutions] / per. s nem. L.V. Lannika; komm. i vst. st. L.V. Lannika, N.V. Lavrent'eva. Sankt-Peterburg, 2021. (In Russ.)

33. Raevskij N.A. Tysjacha devjat'sot vosemnadcatyj god [1918 year]. Moskva, 2020. (In Russ.)

34. Redzhi. Antanta, nemcy i russkaja Dobrovol'cheskaja armija [Entente, Germans and the Russian Volunteer Army] / ed. L.V. Lannik. Moskva, 2015. (In Russ.)

35. San'kova S.M. Russkaja partija v Rossii. Obrazovanie i dejatel'nost' Vserossijskogo nacional'nogo sojuza (1908–1917) [The Russian Party in Russia. Formation and activity of the All-Russian National Union (1908–1917)]. Orеl, 2006. (In Russ.)

36. Sergeev E.Ju. “Inaja zemlja, inoe nebo…”: Zapad i voennaja jelita Rossii (1900–1914 gg.) [“Another earth, another sky...ˮ: The West and the military elite of Russia (1900–1914)]. Moskva, 2001. (In Russ.)

37. Sergeev E.Ju. Bol'sheviki i anglichane. Sovetsko-britanskie otnoshenija: ot intervencii k priznaniju, 1918–1924 [The Bolsheviks and the British. Soviet-British Relations: from Intervention to Recognition, 1918–1924]. Sankt-Peterburg, 2019. (In Russ.)

38. Solonevich I.L. Nasha strana. XX vek [Our country. 20th century]. Moskva, 2001. (In Russ.)

39. Svechin M.A. Zapiski starogo generala o bylom [Notes of an old general about the past]. Nicca, 1964. (In Russ.)

40. Tarasov K.A. Voennye zagovory, nastojashhie i mnimye. Dejatel'nost' antibol'shevistskogo podpol'ja po organizacii vooruzhennogo vosstanija v Petrograde, mart–ijun' 1918 g. [Military conspiracies, real and imaginary. The activity of the anti-Bolshevik underground in organizing an armed uprising in Petrograd, March–June 1918] // Zhurnal rossijskih i vos-tochnoevropejskih istoricheskih issledovanij [Journal of Russian and Eastern European Historical Studies]. 2019. № 2 (17). S. 32–69. (In Russ.)

41. Trubeckoj E.N. Iz putevyh zametok bezhenca [From the travel notes of a refugee] // Arhiv russkoj revoljucii [Archive of the Russian Revolution]. T. 18. Berlin, 1927. S. 137–207. (In Russ.)

42. Ukraina – 1918. Vzgljad iz Germanii [Ukraine – 1918. View from Germany] / per. s nem. i komm. L.V. Lannika. Moskva, 2018. (In Russ.)

43. Vatlin A.Ju., Lannik L.V. Tajnye noty k Dobavochnomu dogovoru 27 avgusta 1918 g.: neizvestnyj sjuzhet iz istorii sovetsko-germanskih otnoshenij na ishode Pervoj mirovoj vojny [Secret Notes to the Supplementary Treaty of August 27, 1918: an Unknown Plot From the History of Soviet-German Relations at the End of the First World War] // Novaja i novejshaja istorija [Modern and Contemporary History]. 2021. № 5. S. 208–230. (In Russ.)

44. Volkov S.V. Tragedija russkogo oficerstva [The tragedy of the Russian offi–cership]. Moskva, 1999. (In Russ.)

45. Vrag, protivnik, sojuznik? Rossija vo vneshnej politike Francii v 1917–1924 gg. [Enemy, opponent, ally? Russia in the foreign policy of France in 1917–1924]: v 2 kn. / ed. A.Ju. Pavlova. Sankt-Peterburg, 2021. (In Russ.)

46. Zaljubovskij A.P. Snabzhenie russkoj armii v Velikuju vojnu ruzh'jami, pulemetami, revol'verami i patronami k nim [Supply of the Russian army in the Great War with rifles, machine guns, revolvers and cartridges for them]. Belgrad, 1936. (In Russ.)

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up