Historical memory and political polarization in Chile

Publication type Article
Status Published
Affiliation: Institute for Latin American studies, RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameLatin America
EditionIssue 12

The article deals with the problem of public memory of the military coup of 1973 and political repressions carried out by the military authoritarian regime of A. Pinochet (1973-1990). The author analyzes the concept of "memory trauma" in relation to Chile, when the tragic events that divided society in a certain historical period, 45 years later continue to influence modern political relations. The article discusses the various stages of a coherent strategy of democratic governments to restore truth and justice during the periods of P. Aylwin and Ed. Frei Ruiz-Tagle, the policy for the preservation of the memory during the presidency of R. Lagos and M. Bachelet, the results of the work of special commissions, the attitude to pinochetism of modern right wing. At the present stage, the factor of strengthening radical ideological positions, both in the left and in the right part of the political spectrum, is of significant importance, especially in the context of memory activities related to the 45th anniversary of the military coup in 2018. The demonstration of pinochetist sentiments on the part of a number of right-wing people went along with the process of radicalization of the left political spectrum, gaining strength in Chilean society, the fall in the popularity of traditional left-centrism, which was particularly evident during the election campaign of 2017. Analyzing the prospects of the Chilean model of development, the author connects the possibility of overcoming the "trauma of memory" with the expansion and deepening of social policy, its focus on overcoming inequality and segregation in a number of key areas of national development – education, health, creating social lifts for young people from the poor.

KeywordsChile, A.Pinochet, historical memory, National Commission on Truth and Reconciliation, R.Lagos, M.Bachelet, S.Piñera, "Neither forgiveness nor oblivion"
Publication date18.11.2019
Number of characters35454
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 1, views: 1274

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Safronova Yu.A. Tret'ya volna memory studies: Dvadtsat' tri goda protiv shersti. Politicheskaya nauka. M., 2018, № 3, ss.12-31.

2. Memory Studies Journal. SAGE Publications, New York, 2008-2019. Available at: http://www.journals.sagepub.com/ (accessed 11.06.2019).

3. Semenenko I.S. Proshloe na perednem krae politiki identichnosti. Mirovaya ehkonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya. M., 2018, tom 62, № 11, ss. 65-76.

4. Moulian T. Chile actual: anatomía de un mito. Santiago de Chile: LOM, 2002, 388 p.

5. Canobbio M. Cronicón Histórico. Testimonios de la Historia Política 1920-1994. Santiago de Chile, 1995, 339 p.

6. Evidence on the Terror in Chile / Comp. by Raul Silva. London: Merlin Press, 1974, 139 p.

7. D'yakova L.V. «Pust' ukhodit!» Rol' soglashenij ehlit v transformatsii voennogo rezhima Pinocheta. Latinskaya Amerika. M., 2018, № 9, ss. 5-16.

8. Informe de la Comisión Presidencial Asesora para la Calificación de Detenidos-Desaparecidos, Ejecutados Políticos y Víctimas de Prisión Política y Tortura. Available at: http://www.indh.cl/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Informe2011.pdf (accessed 20.11.2018).

9. No Hay Maňana sin Ayer: Propuesta del Presidente Lagos sobre los Derechos Humanos. Available at: https://bibliotecadigital.indh.cl/bitstream/handle/123456789/183/no-hay-mana-na.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed 12.06.2019).

10. Museo de la Memoria y los Derechos Humanos. Available at: https://ww3.museode-lamemoria.cl/exposicion-permanente/ (accessed 27.06.2019).

11. Pinochet gana detractores 40 años después del golpe. Available at: www.infolatam.com/2013/09/10/pinochet-gana-detractores-40-aňos-después-del-golpe (accessed 18.09.2013).

12. Chile a 40 años del golpe de Pinochet. Available at: www.infolatam.com/2013/09/10/chile-a-40-aňos-del-golpe-de-pinochet/ (accessed 18.09.2013).

13. Podrobnee ob ehtom sm.: D'yakova L.V. Chili: reviziya starykh kompromissov. Latinskaya Amerika, 2018, № 2, ss. 5-15.

14. 11 de septiembre: la fecha que sigue dividiendo a Chile 45 años después. El País, 12,09,2018. Available at: https://elpais.com/internacional/2018/09/12/america/1536712846_322093.html (accessed 17.05.2019).

15. Chile: A dos días de los 45 aňos del Golpe de Estado, Piňera arremete contra Allende. Available at: www.cubadebate.cu/noticias/2018/09/09/chile-a-dos-días-de-los-45-aňos-del-golpe-de-estado-piňera-arremete-contra-allende/(accessed 27.09.2018).

16. La sombra de Pinochet persigue las elecciones chilenas. Available at: https://www.france24.com/es/20171118/augusto-pinochet-elecciones-chile-2017 (accessed 26.06.2019).

17. Chile. Piden renuncia del nuevo ministro de cultura por declaraciones sobre la memoria y dd.hh. Available at: www.nodalcultura.am/2018/08/chile-piden-renuncia-del-nuevo-ministro-de-cultura-por-declaraciones-sobre-la-memoria-y-ddhh/ (accessed 21.05.2019).

18. Rivas P. Chile, un largo septiembre. Santiago de Chile, LOM Ediciones, 2007, 256 p.

Система Orphus