The policy of Great Britain in Venezuela in the second half of the XIX — early XX centuries: at the source of the crisis of 1902

Publication type Article
Status Published
Affiliation: Peoples Friendship University of Russia
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Affiliation: Peoples Friendship University of Russia
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameLatin America
EditionIssue 10

Great Britain had significant colonial possessions in Africa and Asia, but after the loss of the colonies in North America intensified its policy regarding the Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the New World. Since the second half of the XVIII century England smuggled trade with Spanish America and used the British ports on the islands of the West Indies. But in the first quarter of the XIX century the situation is changing, which was caused by three factors: the growth of industrial production in the UK, the continental blockade of British goods in Europe and the emergence of independent states in the New World, which could create opportunities for expanding British exports. Argentina, Brazil and Chile become the main trading partners of England, and a politically unstable, underdeveloped Venezuela represented a difficult alternative for London. However, a convenient geographical position along the Atlantic coast, a good navigation system gave significant advantages to this territory, which was located near the British island of Trinidad and British Guiana. The discovery of gold, copper, and later oil increased the attention of England to Venezuela, which subsequently led to a territorial conflict and blockade of the Venezuelan territory by England, Germany and Italy in order to collect debts. The United States acted on the side of Venezuela in the framework of the "Monroe Doctrine". The resolution of these conflicts by the arbitration has become an important precedent in international relations.

KeywordsGreat Britain, Venezuela, trade, contracts, export, debts, territorial conflict, Essequibo, arbitration
Publication date26.09.2019
Number of characters35265
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 4, views: 1388

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Lynch J. British Policy and Spanish America, 1783–1808. Journal of Latin American Studies, 1969. 1(01), 1, pp. 1-30.

2. Miller R. Britain and Latin America in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. London, Longman, 1993, 335 r.

3. Bulmer-Thomas V., Coatsworth H.J. Cortes Conde R. The Cambridge economic history of Latin America.Vol. 1. The Colonial Era and the Short Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press, 2008, 736 p.

4. Rippy J.F. Brjtish investiments in Latin America, 1822-1949. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1959, 249 p.

5. Istoriya Latinskoj Ameriki. 70-e gody XIX veka — 1918 god. M., Nauka, 1993, 512 s.

6. British and Foreign States Papers, 1848-1849. Vol. XXXVII. Completed by the librarian and keeper of the papers, foreign office. London, 1862. Available at: 691-697 (accessed 30.03.2019).

7. British and Foreign States Papers. 1843-1844. Vol. XXXI. London 1959. Available at: (accessed 31.01.2019).

8. Mr.Wilson to the Earl of Aberdeen. Caracas, August 4,1843. British and Foreign States Papers. 1843-1844. Vol. XXXII. London, 1859. Available at: (accessed 30.03.2019).

9. Gonzalez Deluca, María Elena. Los intereses brltanicos y la politica en Venezuela en las ultimas decadas del siglo XIX. Available at: (accessed 04.02.2019).

10. Límites de Venezuela. Available at: Get.php?resId=9945 (accessed 31.01.2019).

11. The British Guiana-Venezuela Border Dispute Reports from The New-York Times (1887-1904) Compiled by: Ronald Ramdayal & Odeen Ishmael Editor: Odeen Ishmael Released by GNI Publications, 2010. Available at: (accessed 30.03.2019).

12. B'yukenen D. Moya missiya v Rossii. Memuary. M., Zakharov, 2006, 432 c.

13. Trinca Fighera D., Nubis Pulido Movilidad de los límites político-administrativos del territorio venezolano. indefiniciones e imprecisiones. Available at: (accessed 31.01.2019).

14. Maduro N., Rodríguez Gómez D., Guayana Esequiba historia de un despojo. Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores Caracas - Venezuela - 2015. Available at: (accessed 31.01.2019).

15. Harris M. Venezuelan Crisis of 1902 Clash of Arms Games. Available at: (accessed 31.01.2019).

16. Maduro, N. M. Delcy Rodríguez Gómez, Guayana Esequiba historia de un despojo. Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores Caracas - Venezuela - 2015. Available at: (accessed 31.01.2019).

Система Orphus