Waldemar Jochelson in the Sibiryakov Expedition (Drawn on the 1895 Field Diaries) [V.I. Iokhelson v Sibiriakovskoi ekspeditsii (po materialam putevykh zapisei 1895 g.)]

 
PIIS086954150013598-7-1
DOI10.31857/S086954150013598-7
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Moscow, 32a Leninsky prospekt
Journal nameEtnograficheskoe obozrenie
Edition№1
Pages76-93
Abstract

The article is drawn on Waldemar Jochelson’s 1985 field diaries which were kept during his fieldwork in the course of the Sibiryakov (Yakut) expedition. These field records are stored at the archive of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences. I discuss the history of Jochelson’s field, as well as the formation of topics and methods of his fieldwork. His long-term field research in Siberia was a forced one, as Jochelson found himself in Siberian exile. He developed methods of ethnographic fieldwork on the basis of his personal life experience and self-education, working on scholarly programs. An important role in the success of Jochelson’s fieldwork was played by his acceptance among the Upper Kolyma Yukaghirs and his subsequent long-term residence among them and language learning. Jochelson’s field experience was shaped during the Sibiryakov expedition. As a result, he entered the later Jesup expedition as a seasoned well-trained field researcher. The article introduces a range of novel materials on scholarly reflexivity of the famous Russian ethnographer.

KeywordsWaldemar Jochelson, Sibiryakov (Yakut) expedition, fieldwork concept, field diaries, reflectivity, Yukagirs, Yakuts
Received17.02.2021
Publication date25.02.2021
Number of characters41647
Cite  
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.
Размещенный ниже текст является ознакомительной версией и может не соответствовать печатной
1

Введение

2 Мысль Иохельсона, высказанная в письме в Восточно-Сибирский отдел ИРГО из Сибиряковской экспедиции, – “…нужно сделать одно: записывать – а записывать есть что, только не ленись” (Сирина, Шинковой 2007: 349) – перекликается с мыслями К. Гирца, изложенными много лет спустя: “Чем занимается этнограф в поле? Он записывает” (Гирц 2004: 28). Однако отношение к записываемому различалось: Иохельсон не сомневался в объективности своего восприятия и соответственно наблюдений и мыслей, положенных на бумагу; Гирц же проблематизировал сам этот процесс. Методологическая рефлексия в интерпретативной антропологии перенесла акцент с познаваемой реальности на фигуру исследователя, обусловила интерес к полевым дневниковым записям, которые неизбежно отражают не только профессиональные навыки, но и мировоззрение, особенности личности исследователя1. Вокруг этой проблематики сложился большой объем научной литературы (Clifford, Marcus 1986; Sanjek 1990; Emerson et al. 2011; Арзютов, Кан 2013; Гупта, Фергюсон 2013; Давыдова 2015; Максимова 2012; Михайлова 2015; Пивнева 2017; Форум 2018: 11–114; Хаховская 2016; 2017 и мн. др.). 1. Публикация личного полевого дневника Б. Малиновского подогрела интерес ученых к различным вопросам полевой работы (Malinowski 1989).
3 Для сибиреведов особый интерес представляют дневники классиков этнографии, стоявших у истоков исследований народов Сибири. Среди таких имен следует назвать имя Владимира (Вольдемара, Вениамина) Ильича Иохельсона (1855–1937), который по сравнению со своими товарищами Львом Яковлевичем Штернбергом и Владимиром Германовичем Богоразом пока не получил должного внимания (Winterschladen 2018). Активный революционер-народник, общавшийся с лидерами мирового социал-демократического движения в Германии, Швейцарии, России, а также ответственный за техническое обеспечение покушений на представителей власти, Иохельсон в 1888 г. был выслан на десять лет в Сибирь, сначала в Олёкминский, затем в Колымский и Якутский округа Якутской обл. Педантическая четкость работы, смелость и находчивость, отличавшие Иохельсона (Шавров 1935: 2), пригодились в ссылке. Именно там начался новый этап его жизни, который оказался связан с этнографическими, антропологическими, лингвистическими и фольклорными исследованиями народов Северо-Востока Сибири. Иохельсон участвовал в трех крупнейших экспедициях конца XIX – начала XX в.: российской Сибиряковской (Якутской, 1894–1896), американской Джезуповской (1897–1902) и российской Рябушинского (Камчатско-Алеутской, 1908–1910), в которых провел не менее десяти лет (Слободин 2005: 96). Он стал подлинным знатоком малоизученных культур, языков и диалектов народов Северо-Востока России2. Ученый является автором 12 монографий (не считая переиздания) на русском и английском языках (Слободин 2005а; Kasten 2018). Молодые этнографы-марксисты в СССР признавали, что Иохельсон – “выдающийся полевой исследователь и лучший знаток языка, фольклора, материальной культуры юкагиров, алеутов, ительменов и коряков”, однако критиковали его за эмпиризм и призывали вернуться в СССР из “научного одиночества” в США (Шавров 1935: 13–14). 2. Наследие Иохельсона велико и находится на трех континентах в 13 архивах и музеях (Winterschladen 2018).

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 1219

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Arzyutov, D.V. and S.A. Kan. 2013. Kontseptsiia polia i polevoi raboty v rannei sovetskoi etnografii [The Concept of the Field and Fieldwork in Early Soviet Ethnography]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 6: 45–68.

2. Clifford, J., and G. Marcus, eds. 1986. Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.

3. Davydova, E.A. 2015. Polevye dnevniki V.G. Kuznetsovoi kak etnograficheskii istochnik [Field Diaries of V.G. Kuznetsova as an Ethnographic Source]. Universitetskii nauchnyi zhurnal 14: 160–167.

4. Emerson, R.M., M.I. Fretz, and L.L. Shaw, eds. 2011. Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

5. Geerz, C. 2004. “Nasyshchennoe opisanie”: v poiskakh interpretativnoi istorii kul’tury [Thick descriptions toward an interpretive theory of culture]. In Interpretatsiia kul’tur [The Interpretation of Cultures], edited by S.Ya. Levit, 9–42. Moscow: ROSSPEN.

6. Golovnev, A.V. 2018. Etnografiia v rossiiskoi akademicheskoi traditsii [Ethnography in the Russian Academic Tradition]. Etnografiia 1: 6–39.

7. Gurvich, I.S., and R.G. Liapunova. 1980. Kollektsii muzeev SShA po narodam Severo-Zapadnoi Ameriki i Sibiri [Collections of US Museums on the Peoples of Northwest America and Siberia]. Sovetskaiia etnografiia 5: 121–128.

8. Gupta, A., and J. Ferguson. 2013. Distsiplina i praktika: “pole” kak mesto, metod i lokal’nost’ v antropologii [Discipline and Practice: “The Field” as Site, Method and Location in Anthropology]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 6: 3–44.

9. Ivanov, V.Kh. 2005. Vladimir Iokhel’son i ego kniga “Iukagiry i iukagirizirovannye tungusy” [Waldemar Jochelson and His Book “Yukagirs and Yukagirized Tunguses”]. In Yukagiry i yukagirizirovannye tungusy [The Yukagir and the Yukaghirized Tungus], by W. Jochelson, translated by V.Kh. Ivanov and Z.I. Ivanova-Unarova, 12–22. Novosibirsk: Nauka.

10. Kasten, E., and M. Dürr. 2016. Jochelson and the Jesup North Pacific Expedition: A New Approach in the Ethnography of the Russian Far East. In The Koryak, by W. Jochelson, edited by E. Kasten and M. Dürr, 9–34. Fürstenberg; Havel: Kulturstiftung Sibirien.

11. Kasten, E. 2018. From Political Exile to Outstanding Ethnologist For Northeastern Siberia: Jokhelson as Self-Taught Fieldworker During His First Sibiriakov Expedition 1894–1897. In Jokhelson, Bogoras and Shternberg. A Scientific Exploration of the Northeastern Siberia and the Shaping of Soviet Ethnography, edited by E. Kasten, 35–59. Furstenberg; Havel: Kulturstiftung Sibirien.

12. Kendall, L., and I. Krupnik, eds. 2003. Constructing Cultures Then and Now: Celebrating Franz Boas and the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Washington: Arctic Studies Center; National Museum of Natural History; Smithsonian Institution.

13. Khakhovskaiia, L.N. 2016. Polevye issledovaniia V.G. Kuznetsovoi v Amguemskoi tundre [Field Studies of V.G. Kuznetsova in the Tundra of Amguem]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 3: 83–95.

14. Khakhovskaiia, L.N. 2017. Etnokul’turnye razlichiia skvoz’ prizmu opyta polevogo issledovatelia (na materiale dnevnika D.L. Iokhel’son-Brodskoi) [Ethnocultural Differences Through the Prizm of the Field Researcher’s Experience (Based on the Diary of D.L. Jokhelson-Brodskaya)]. Rossiia i ATR 2: 195–213.

15. Korsun, S.A. 2012. L.Ya. Shternberg kak amerikanist [L.Ya. Shternberg as an Americanist]. In Lev Shternberg – grazhdanin, uchenyi, pedagog. K 150-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia [Lev Sternberg is a Citizen, Scientist, and Teacher. To the 150th Anniversary of the Birth], edited by E.A. Rezvan, 65–82. Saint Petersburg: MAE RAN.

16. Korsun, S.A. 2013. V.I. Iokhel’son – issledovatel’ aleutov [W.I. Jokhelson is a Researcher of the Aleuts]. Muzei. Traditsii. Etnichnost’ 1: 6–17.

17. Krupnik, I., and N. Vakhtin 2003. “The Aim of the Expedition… Has in the Main Been Accomplished”: Words, Deeds, and Legacy of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. In Constructing Cultures Then and Now. Celebrating Franz Boas and the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, edited by L. Kendall and I. Krupnik, 15–31. Washington: Arctic Studies Center, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

18. Krupnik, I., and W. Fitzhugh, eds. 2001. Gateways. Exploring the Legacy of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Washington: Arctic Studies Center.

19. Liarskaia, E. 2016. Tkan’ Penelopy: “proekt Bogoraza” vo vtoroi polovine 1920 – 1930-kh gg. [“Penelope’s Cloth”: “The Bogoraz Project” in the Second Half of the 1920s – 1930s]. Antropologicherskii forum 29: 142–186.

20. Maksimova, A.S. 2012. Analiz polevykh dnevnikov v kontekste proizvodstva etnopgraficheskikh tekstov [Analysis of Field Diaries in the Context of Production of Ethnographic Texts]. Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniia 1 (107): 128–140.

21. Malinowski, B. 1989. A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term. London: Antlone Press.

22. Marcus, G.E. Ethnography in/of the World System: The Emergence of Multi-Sited Ethnography. Annual Review of Anthropology 24: 95–117.

23. Mikhailova, E.A. 2015. Skitaniia Varvary Kuznetsovoi. Chukotskaia ekspeditsiia Varvary Grigor’evny Kuznetsovoi. 1948–1951 gg. [Wanderings of Varvara Kuznetsova. The Chukchi Expedition of Varvara G. Kuznetsova. 1948–1951]. St. Petersburg: MAE RAN.

24. Milevskii, O.A., and A.B. Panchenko 2017. “Bespokoinyi Klements”: opyt intellektual’noi biografii [“Restless Klements”: Experience of Intellectual Biography]. Moscow: Politicheskaia entsiklopediia.

25. Rapport, N. 1991. Writing Fieldnotes. The Conventionalities of Note-Taking and Taking Note in the Field. Anthropology Today 7 (4): 10–13.

26. Peterson, N. 1997. Demand Sharing: Sociobiology and the Pressure for Generosity Among Foragers? In Scholar and Sceptic. Australian Aboriginal Studies in Honour of L.R. Hiatt, edited by F. Merlan, J. Morton, and A. Rumsey, 171–190. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.

27. Pivneva, E.A., ed. 2017. Pole kak zhizn’. K 60-letiiu Severnoi ekspeditsii IEA RAN [The Field as Life: To the 60th Anniversary of the Northern Expedition of the IEA RAS]. St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriia.

28. Sanjek, R., ed. 1990. Fieldnotes: The Makings of Anthropology. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

29. Sirina, A.A., and A.I. Shinkovoi 2007. Neizvestnoe nasledie Sibiriakovskoi (Iakutskoi) ekspeditsii (1894–1896): pis’ma V.I. Iokhel’sona vo VSOIRGO [Unknown legacy of Sibiryakov (Yakut) Expedition (1894–1896): W.I. Jochelson’s Letters to the East Siberian Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society]. In Rasy i narody [Races and Peoples], edited by D.A. Funk. Iss. 33: 331–368. Moscow: Nauka.

30. Sirina, A.A. 2012. Evenki i eveny v sovremennom mire: samosoznanie, prirodopol’zovanie, mirovozzrenie [Evenki and Eveny in the Modern World: Identity, Nature Use and Worldview]. Moscow: Vostochnaia literatura.

31. Sirina, A.A. 2013. Nauchnoe tvorchestvo kak sotrudnichestvo (po materialam Sibiryakovskoi (Yakutskoi) ekspeditsii [Scientific Work as Collaboration (Based on the Materials of the Sibiryakov (Yakut) Expedition]. In Tvorcheskaiia lichnost’ v istoriko-kul’turnom prostranstve: materialy mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii [Creative Person in the Historical and Cultural Space: Materials of the International Conference], edited by L.R. Kulakovskaia and K.K. Sultanov, 241–250. Novosibirsk: Nauka.

32. Slobodin, S.B. 2004. Nauchnoe nasledie V.I. Iokhel’sona v izuchenii kul’tury evenov Okhotskogo poberezh’ia [W.I. Jokhelson’s Scientific Heritage in the Study of the Even Culture of the Okhotsk Coast]. In Severo-Vostok Rossii: proshloe, nastoiashchee, budushchee [North-East of Russia: Past, Present, Future], edited by N.A. Goriachev. Vol. 2: 240–244. Magadan: Kordis.

33. Slobodin, S.B. 2005. Vydaiushchiisia issledovatel’ severnykh narodov (k 150-letiiu so dnia rozhdeniia V.I. Iokhel’sona) [Outstanding Researcher of the Northern People (On the 150th Anniversary of W.I. Jokhelson]. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie 5: 96–115.

34. Shavrov, K.B. 1935. V.I. Iokhelson [W.I. Jokhelson]. Sovetskaia etnografiia 2: 3–15.

35. Stepanova, L.B. 2016. Muzeinoe sobiratel’stvo v Rossii. Yakutskie etnograficheskie kollektsii (1865–1968) [Museum Gathering in Russia. Yakutsk Ethnographic Collections (1868–1968)]. Novosibirsk: Nauka.

36. Tugolukov, V.A. 1982. Eveny [Evens]. In Etnicheskaia istoriia narodov Severa [Ethnic History of the Peoples of the North], edited by I.S. Gurvich, 155–167. Moscow: Nauka.

37. Vakhtin, N. 2001. Franz Boas and the Shaping of the Jesup Research in Siberia. In Gateways: Exploring the Legacy of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 1897–1902, edited by I. Krupnik and B. Fitzhugh, 71–89. Washington: Arctic Studies Center.

38. Vakhtin, N.B. 2004. “Nauka i zhizn’”: sud’ba Vladimira Iokhel’sona (po materialam ego perepiski 1897–1934 gg.) [“Science and Life”: The Fortune of Vladimir Jochelson (Based on His Correspondens 1897–1934]. Biulleten’: antropologiia, men’shinstva, mul’tikul’turalizm 5: 35–49.

39. Vakhtin, N.B. 2005. Tikhookeanskaia ekspeditsiia Dzhesupa i ee russkie uchastniki [Jesup North Pacific Expedition and Its Russian Participants]. Antropologicheskii forum 2: 241–274.

40. Vakhtin, N. 2016. “Proekt Bogoraza”: bor’ba za ogon’ [Bogoraz Project: the Fight for Fire]. Antropologicheskii forum 29: 125–141.

41. Ventsel, A. 2018. Polevye zametki i skrytaia istoria [Field Notes and Hidden History]. Antropologicheskii forum 36: 34–42.

42. Winterschladen, M. 2018. The Forgotten Member of the “Ethnotroika”? Waldemar Jochelson in the Mirror of Research and His Scientific Legacy. In Jokhelson, Bogoras and Shternberg. A Scientific Exploration of the Northeastern Siberia and the Shaping of Soviet Ethnography, edited by E. Kasten, 13–32. Furstenberg; Havel: Kulturstiftung Sibirien.

43. Wolfinger, N.H. 2002. On Writing Fieldnotes: Collection Strategies and Background Expectancies. Qualitative Research 2 (1): 85–95.



Additional sources and materials

AIVR RAN – Arxiv Instituta vostochny`x rukopisej RAN. F. 631. D. 15.

Aleuty` 2014 – Aleuty`: Katalog kollekcij Kunstkamery` / Avt.-sost. S.A. Korsun; Otv. red. Yu.E. Berezkin. SPb.: MAE` RAN, 2014.

Astaxova 2005 – Astaxova I.S. “E`ta bezrassudnaya zateya…”: istoriya organizacii Yakutskoj (Sibiryakovskoj) e`kspedicii 1894–1896 gg. // Ilin. 2005. № 6 (47). http://ilin-yakutsk.narod.ru/2005-6/28.htm 

GAIO – Gosudarstvenny`j arxiv Irkutskoj oblasti. F. 293. Op. 1 OCz. 

Goroxov 1962 – Goroxov K.N. Istoriko-e`tnograficheskoe issledovanie yakutov Yakutskoĭ (Sibiryakovskoj) e`kspedicieĭ VSORGO v 1894–1896 gg. Avtoref. diss. … kand. ist. nauk. Irkutskij gosudarstvenny`j un-t, Irkutsk, 1962.

Gurvich 1963 – Gurvich I.S. Polevy`e dnevniki V.I. Ioxel`sona i D.L. Ioxel`son-Brodskoj // Ocherki istorii russkoj e`tnografii, fol`kloristiki i antropologii. M.: Nauka, 1963. Vy`p. 2. S. 248–258.

Ivanova-Unarova 2017 – Ivanova-Unarova Z.I. Otry`vki iz polevogo dnevnika V.I. Ioxel`sona 1896 g. // Muzy`kal`naya vselennaya Yuriya Shejkina (k 50-letiyu nauchnoj deyatel`nosti) / Sost. O.E`. Dobzhanskaya; Redkol.: T.I. Ignat`eva, S.V. Maksimova, V.S. Nikiforova. Yakutsk: Alaas, 2017. S. 131–140. 

Ioxel`son 1897 – Ioxel`son V.I. Predvaritel`ny`j otchet ob issledovaniyax inorodcev Krajnego Severa Yakutskoj oblasti (s kartoj marshrutov). Irkutsk: Tipo-litografiya I.I. Makushina, 1897. 

Ioxel`son 1898 – Ioxel`son V.I. Ocherk zveropromy`shlennosti i torgovli mexami v Koly`mskom okruge. SPb.: Izdano na sredstva A.I. Gromovoj, 1898. (Trudy` Yakutskoj e`kspedicii, snaryazhennoj na sredstva I.M. Sibiryakova. Otd. III. T. X. Ch. 3).

Ioxel`son 2005 – Ioxel`son V.I. Yukagiry` i yukagirizirovanny`e tungusy` / Per. s angl. V.X. Ivanova, Z.I. Ivanovoj-Unarovoj. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2005.

Majnov 1929 – Majnov I.I. Predislovie // Vitashevskij N.A., Levental` L.G., Pavlinov D.M. Materialy` po oby`chnomu pravu i obshhestvennomu by`tu yakutov. L.: Izd-vo Akad. nauk SSSR, 1929. S. I–XLIX. (Trudy` Komissii po izucheniyu Yakutskoj avtonomnoj SSR. T. 4).

O rabotax 1896 – O rabotax yakutskoj e`kspedicii: otchet za 1895 g. // Izvestiya VCOIRGO. 1896. T. 27. № 2. S. 42–47.

Obruchev 1897 – Obruchev V.A. Programma izdaniya trudov Yakutskoj e`kspedicii. Irkutsk: [B. i.], 1897.

Pekarskij, Majnov 1913 – Pekarskij E`.K., Majnov I.I. Programma dlya issledovaniya domashnego i semejnogo by`ta yakutov // Zhivaya starina. 1913. Vy`p. 3–4. S. 117–135.

Slobodin 2005 – Slobodin S.B. (sost.) Spisok rabot Vladimira Il`icha Ioxel`sona // E`tnograficheskoe obozrenie Online. Sentyabr` 2005a. http://journal.iea.ras.ru/online 

Forum 2018 – Forum: ot polya k tekstu // Antropologicheskij forum. 2018. № 36. S. 11–114.

Jochelson 1910–1926 – Jochelson W. The Yukagir and the Yukaghirized Tungus. Leiden: E.J. Brill; N.Y.: G.E. Stechert, 1910, 1924, 1926. (The Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Series: Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History. Vol. 13. Part 1–3).

Jochelson 1933 – Jochelson W. The Yakut. N.Y.: The American Museum of Natural History, 1933.

Jochelson 1990 – Jochelson W. Aleut Tales and Narratives. Collected 1909–1910 by W. Jochelson / Ed. K. Bergsland, M.L. Dirks. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center; University of Alaska, 1990.

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up