Empathy, Anxiety, and Aggression among Moscow Students

 
PIIS086954150007385-3-1
DOI10.31857/S086954150007385-3
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 32-a Leninsky prospekt, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Affiliation: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 32a Leninsky prospekt, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Affiliation: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 32a Leninsky prospekt, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Affiliation: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 32-a Leninsky prospekt, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Journal nameEtnograficheskoe obozrenie
Edition№5
Pages169-188
Abstract

Research on empathy, altruism, and cooperation is one of the highest priorities in the fields of social anthropology, psychology, and evolutionary sciences around the world. The goal of this article is to assess the level of empathy of Russian students towards people with disabilities. For this purpose, we measured respondents' levels of anxiety and aggression, assessed the correlation of these characteristics with empathy, determined the degree of their change under the influence of stress (sensitivity to stress). Also, we used the 2D:4D ratio as a biomarker of prenatal androgenization. The outcome of this study shows that human behavior is determined by a complex of interrelated social (cultural) and biological factors. Femininity (as a reflection of prenatal oestrogenization of the brain) is a predictor of higher levels of empathy and cooperation and more pronounced reactions to stressful stimuli, regardless of environmental factors.

Keywordsempathy, altruism, anxiety, aggression, stress, students
AcknowledgmentThis research was supported by the following institutions and grants: Russian Science Foundation, https://doi.org/10.13039/501100006769 [grant no. 18-18-00075]
Received29.11.2019
Publication date02.12.2019
Number of characters28629
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1 Изучение эмпатии и тесно связанных с ней альтруизма и кооперации является одним из самых приоритетных направлений в социальной антропологии, психологии и эволюционных исследованиях по всему миру, о чем свидетельствует множество публикаций на эту тему в самых уважаемых научных изданиях (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright 2004; Branas-Garza et al. 2013; Butovskaya et al. 2000; Fehr et al. 2013; Jolliffe, Farrington 2004; Rostovtseva et al. 2019; Буркова и др. 2019; Ростовцева, Бутовская 2017, 2018). Научный интерес к кооперативному и альтруистическому поведению возник на заре формирования современных эволюционных представлений; одним из основателей нового направления был российский ученый П.А. Кропоткин, в начале XX в. обративший внимание на роль взаимопомощи в эволюционных процессах (Ростовцева, Бутовская 2018).
2 Понятие “эмпатия” (от нем. Einfuhlung – “проецировать себя на то, что вы наблюдаете”) впервые появилось в 1909 г. в работе Э. Титченера (Titchener 1909; цит. по Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright 2004). В настоящее время оно обычно определяется с точки зрения двух подходов: 1) аффективного – рассматривающего эмпатию как эмоциональный отклик наблюдателя на аффективное состояние другого человека; 2) когнитивного – подчеркивающего, что эмпатия включает в себя понимание чужих чувств (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright 2004; Preston, de Waal 2002). В настоящее время исследователи солидарны в том, что эмпатия содержит в себе как эмоциональные, так и когнитивные составляющие, однако какова причинно-следственная связь этих составляющих – по-прежнему один из проблемных вопросов (Cuff et al. 2016; Jolliffe, Farrington 2004). В ряду наиболее универсальных определений следует отметить предложенное Д. Кохеном и Д. Страером: это способность понимать эмоциональное состояние и разделять его. Таким образом, признается, что эмпатия является одновременно познавательным (способность понимать эмоциональное состояние другого человека) и аффективным (разделение эмоционального состояния другого) процессом (Cohen, Strayer 1996). В более ранних работах одни авторы приводят данные, говорящие о том, что когнитивная эмпатия – предпосылка формирования эмоциональной эмпатии (Feshach 1979), другие – что выявляется обратная последовательность (Van Lissa et al. 2013), а третьи – что эти виды эмпатии тесно взаимосвязаны (Garlick 2002; Jensen 1998). Один из основных исследователей эмпатии приматолог Ф. де Вааль считает, что она, позволяя организму быстро соотноситься с состояниями других, прежде всего важна для регулирования социальных взаимодействий, скоординированной деятельности и сотрудничества группы в достижении общих целей. Хотя когнитивная способность восприятия перспективы помогает в этом, она вторична по отношению к базовой форме эмоциональной составляющей эмпатии (Clay et al. 2018; de Waal 2001).
3 В настоящее время наиболее распространено мнение, что эмпатия – это многогранное явление, состоящее из разных компонентов. Исследователи соглашаются, что ее уровень варьируется от человека к человеку и, следовательно, она может рассматриваться как индивидуальный фактор (Eisenberg, Strayer 1987; Farrington, Jolliffe 2001; Jolliffe, Farrington 2004). Эмпатия влияет на поведение: ожидается, что те индивиды, у кого уровень сопереживания выше, будут более внимательны к чувствам других (Eisenberg et al. 1996; Jolliffe, Farrington 2004; Kaukiainen et al. 1999). Работы нейробиологов показывают, что при решении морально-нравственных дилемм человек руководствуется эмоциональными, а не рациональными мотивами; в одном из исследований, направленных на выявление влияния различных факторов на сопереживание, эмпатию и альтруизм, было обнаружено, что при решении тестов активировались три конкретных области мозга, связанные с эмоциональной сферой (Hsu et al. 2008).

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