The Myth of the World Tree in the Shamanism of Siberian Peoples. Comments: Funk, D. A. In Search of the World Tree: Some Thoughts on What, Where, and How We Search [V poiskakh Mirovogo dreva: razmyshleniia o tom, chto, gde i kak my ishchem]; Batyanova, E. P. Trees, Shamans, and Other Worlds [Derev’ia, shamany i inye miry]; Dybo, A. V. The World Tree: Data from Siberian Languages [Mirovoe drevo: dannye sibirskikh yazykov]; Bulgakova, T. D. The “World Tree” in the Shamanic Image of the World among the Nanai [“Mirovoe drevo” v shamanskoi kartine mira nanaitsev]; Burykin, A. A. The “Shamanic Theater” and Its Attributes [“Shamanskii teatr” i ego atributy]; Balalaeva, O. E., and N. V. Pluzhnikov. Response to Commenters: Thinking about the Use of Discussions (One of the Keys) [Otvet opponentam: razmyshleniia o pol’ze diskussii (odin iz kliuchei)]

 
PIIS086954150005293-2-1
DOI10.31857/S086954150005293-2
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: independent researcher
Address: Moscow, Russia
Affiliation: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 32a Leninsky prospekt, Moscow, 119991, Russia
Occupation: Head of the Department of Ethnology, Faculty of History
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation
Affiliation: Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 32a Leninsky prospekt
Affiliation: The Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 1/1 Bolshoi Kislovsky lane, Moscow, 125009, Russia
Affiliation: Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia
Address: 48 Moyka Embankment (Naberezhnaya r. Moyki), St. Petersburg, 191186, Russia
Affiliation: Institute for Linguistic Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: 9 Tuchkov pereulok, St. Petersburg, 199053, Russia
Journal nameEtnograficheskoe obozrenie
Edition№3
Pages80-122
Abstract

In both academic and popular literature, the mythological motif of the world tree is usually taken to reflect the spatial structure of the universe, with typical upper and lower worlds, characteristic of the shamanic worldview. We argue that the scrupulous examination of Siberian shamanic cultures where the image of the world tree has been observed proves that the image in fact does not fully correspond to the concept of axis mundi running through and connecting the upper, middle, and lower worlds. The actual reasons for the appearance of the world tree image in these shamanic cultures might have been related to particular social and economic developments in the mediaeval history of peoples of Southern Siberia and Central/Eastern Asia. In search of answers, we have surveyed an array of works on Siberian shamanism, and have studied ritual texts, shamans’ interpretations, and material culture objects of ritual significance. The study has further pointed to the presence of two distinctive cultural veins of shamanic practice in Siberia — the Turk and the Tungus ones — in which the image of the world tree, as featured in ritual contexts, appears loaded with different meanings.

KeywordsWorld Tree, shamanism, Selkup, Evenki, rituals of affliction, calendar celebrations, tambourine
AcknowledgmentThis research was supported by the following institutions and grants: Russian Foundation for Basic Research, https://doi.org/10.13039/501100002261 [№ 18-09-00744]
Publication date16.06.2019
Number of characters114875
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1

Миф о Мировом древе в шаманстве народов Сибири

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В этой работе рассматривается одна из универсальных мифологем, встречающаяся во многих традиционных культурах народов Сибири и Дальнего Востока. Это Мировое древо — образ, воплощающий универсальную концепцию мира, который соединяет все сферы мироздания и поэтому существует в “метафизическом” центре (Топоров 1980: 398–405). Шаманство на территории Сибири и Дальнего Востока в настоящее время перестало быть традиционным. То есть навык, необходимый для этой специфической “профессии”, как правило, уже не передается от предыдущих поколений. В рассматриваемом регионе материал по традиционному шаманству со- бран громадный, и его широкомасштабный типологический анализ может суще- ственно изменить наши представления о магическом и религиозном в традиционной этнической культуре.

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При анализе содержимого религиозно-магической сферы стоит помнить, что она имеет прагматическую направленность в отличие, к примеру, от повествова- тельных жанров фольклора — сказки и героического эпоса, где тоже встречается образ Мирового древа. Однако обрядовая сторона культуры может не зависеть от географической среды. И тут важно не забывать о том, что в таежной и тундровой зоне у большинства современных народов Сибири и Дальнего Востока среди предков имеются многочисленные переселенцы из Южной Сибири, Центральной и Восточной Азии, которые, неизбежно влияя на традиционную культуру местного населения, на своей родине могли быть членами сообщества с более высокими тех- нологическими навыками и социально развернутыми религиозно-магическими институтами.

4

Любая картина мира не существует абстрактно, а воплощает в себе массу личных трактовок по поводу тех или иных явлений, а также ритуалов, с ними связанных. Если территория этнической культуры обширна, то ритуальная жизнь может разнообразно варьироваться от места к месту. Как и в живом языке с его диалектами, эти ритуальные формы могут быть равнозначными версиями, которые далеко не всегда удается убедительно объяснить. Нас также интересуют аборигенные трактовки, раскрывающие их смысл. И сами формы, и их местные интерпретации требуют комментария. Один из возможных подходов к материалу по мировоззрению — функциональный, но он не всегда срабатывает, когда явление (представление) находится в состоянии деградации, т.е. сохраняется в качестве невнятного пережитка. Поэтому в дополнение к функциональному мы использовали типологический подход, кото- рый может помочь с изысканием подходящих объяснений, но сам по себе не пред- лагает объяснения, ограничиваясь поисками сходства по форме.

5 Шаманская картина мира отличается меньшей умозрительностью, она похожа на скорректированную на основании личного и при этом весьма специфического эмпирического опыта традиционную картину мира. Кроме того, шаманов могут не интересовать вопросы мироздания, их занимают больше собственные возможно- сти. Несмотря на отдельные детали, сибирские аборигены объясняют себе окружающий мир более-менее схожим образом. Иначе шаманский опыт не распространял- ся бы между разными по языку и происхождению этническими группами.

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Система Orphus

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