On the Uyghur Component in the Formation of the Kimäk Tribal Union [Ob uigurskom komponente v slozhenii Kimakskogo plemennogo soiuza]

 
PIIS086954150004183-1-1
DOI10.31857/S086954150004183-1
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Associated Professor of Department of Archaeology, Ethnography and Museology of Altai State University
Affiliation: Altai State University
Address: 61 Lenin Avenue, Barnaul, 656049, Russia
Occupation: Senior Research Fellow of the Department of History and Culture of Central Asia on the Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of the Siberian Branch of the RAS
Affiliation: Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of the Siberian Branch of the RAS
Address: 6, Sakhyanova St., Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia
Journal nameEtnograficheskoe obozrenie
Edition1
Pages117-133
Abstract

The article examines the problem of participation in the formation of the Kimäk Qaghanate of nomadic groups that were previously part of the population of the Uyghur Qaghanate and migrated westward after its dissolution. We have made an attempt at a comprehensive analysis both of written sources and of archaeological materials. Data provided by written sources are mostly scant; however, comparing texts of various traditions makes it possible, with a certain degree of probability, to find the ethnonym Äymür in the tribal subdivisions both of the Uighurs and of the Kimäks. Another important point is the fixation of the ethnonym Yughur, as a modified form of *Uyghur, in connection with the mention of the Kimäks in one of the texts. An analysis of the recent archaeological excavation data on early medieval monuments of Mongolia, supposedly associated with the Uyghurs, showed the presence of a number of common features shared with the Kimäk complexes of East Kazakhstan. Undoubtedly, the future archaeological research on objects of the last quarter of Ist millennium A.D. will allow us to significantly expand and refine knowledge and ideas about the complex cultural processes that had taken place in Central Eurasia.

 

KeywordsUyghurs, Kimeks, ethnocultural processes, migrations, Mongolia, East Kazakhstan, written sources, archaeological materials
AcknowledgmentThis research was supported by the following institutions and grants: Altai State University [no. 33.867.2017 / PC]; Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences [XII.191.1.2; no. АААА-А17-117021310264-4]
Received24.03.2019
Publication date26.03.2019
Number of characters36603
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1 Едва ли можно сказать, что факт существования в евразийских степях в IX– XI вв. политического объединения, именуемого в науке “Кимакский каганат”1, получил достаточное освещение в историографии. Число обобщающих работ невелико (Кумеков 1972; Golden 1992: 202–205; 2002), что обусловлено преимущественно самим характером источниковой базы. Среди прочих наиболее дискуссионным на сегодняшний день остается вопрос о формировании кимакского племенного объединения — о механизмах этого процесса, компонентах, принявших в нем участие, и наконец о точной хронологии сложения политического союза.
2 Безусловно, этногенетические процессы, если речь заходит об объединениях ко чевников, представляются гораздо более сложными, нежели у оседло-земледельческих народов. Численность и состав любых кочевнических групп варьируются во временной динамике под влиянием экологических и политических факторов, обусловливая текучесть и гибкость социальной организации, и по этой причине они могут рассматриваться скорее как политические, нежели как этнические объединения (Németh 1991: 25–47).
3 В сочинении персидского автора Абӯ Са‘ūда Гардūзū “Зайн ал-ахбāр” (“Украшение известий”), составленном в 60-х годах XI в., приведена генеалогическая легенда кимаков (ﻙﺎﻤﻴﻛ [kymāk]), в некоторых местах ﻙﺎﻴﻤﻴﻛ [kymyāk]), где среди имен основателей семи племен (ﻪﻠﻴﺒﻗ [qbylh]), составивших затем союз, названы имак (ﻙﺎﻤﻴﺍ [’ymāk]) и ими (ﻲﻤﻳﺍ [’ymy]) (Бартольд 1973: 26–27 [перс. текст], 43–44 [рус. перевод]; ср.: Marquart 1914: 89–91; Martinez 1982: 120–121, 123). Несмотря на ряд “народных этимологий” (Бартольд 1973: 44 [прим. 14]; Czeglédy 1973: 259; Зуев 2004: 18), в сущности, это источник, отражающий такое событие, как миграция группы племен на Иртыш и образование там племенного объединения кимаков. Существуют различные версии датировки этой миграции.
4 Й. Маркварт на основе анализа встречающихся в легенде титулов и этнонимов датировал образование кимакского племенного объединения началом VIII в. (Marquart 1914: 95). Турецкий исследователь Ф. Сюмер на основе нескольких некорректных сопоставлений этнонимов пишет о существовании группировки кимаков между реками Иртыш и Кем (Енисей) уже в VIII в., а миграцию на Иртыш других племен относит к IX в. (Sümer 1972: 27–28, 31–32). Как отметил Б.Е. Кумеков, в становлении Кимакского каганата могли принимать непосредственное участие группы населения Уйгурского каганата, мигрировавшие после его падения в 840 г. на северо-запад, где присоединились к ядру уже образовавшегося кимакского объединения (Кумеков 1972: 37–39, 42, 46–47, 112–113, 114). По мнению К. Цегледи, рассказ Гардūзū может относиться к событиям, имевшим место в промежутке 745–766 гг. (Czeglédy 1973: 263–267). Предложенная венгерским исследователем датировка в целом, как показал П.Б. Лурье, подтверждается некоторыми косвенными данными (Lurje 2007: 189–190). При этом нужно отметить, что “тюркские сюжеты” К. Цегледи датировал лишь на основе данных о племенах карлук и йагма.

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