The Revolutionary Tens and Twenties: A Bird’s­Eye View of Physics from Copernicus to Modern Times

 
PIIS020596060014190-1-1
DOI10.31857/S020596060014190-1
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: S. I. Vavilov Institute for the History of Science and Technology
Address: Moscow, Ul. Baltiyskaya, 14
Journal nameVoprosy istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki
EditionVolume 42 1
Pages46-70
AbstractIn this article, the development of physics from N. Copernicus to modern times is reviewed as a succession of scientific revolutions: the Copernican revolution of the 16 th century, the 17 th century revolution, “the French revolution in physics” on the cusp of the 1810s and 1820s, and the quantum-relativistic revolution in the first third of the 20 th century. It is emphasized that the most important scientific events of these revolutions occurred in the tens and twenties of the respective centuries. The structure of the 17 th and 19 th century scientific revolutions (we regard the creation of classical physics as a revolution of a kind) is shown to comprise two stages. The first stages of these scientific revolutions were the Galileo – Kepler phase of the 17 th century revolution and the “French” phase of the 19 th century revolution. Two other revolutions were one-stage. The article discusses the 1710s – 1720s and 2010s – 2020s in physics that may hardly be regarded as scientific revolutions. However, there are several different viewpoints on the current situation that are reviewed in this article. The role of astronomy and mathematics in the reviewed scientific revolutions and in physics is also noted.
Keywordsscientific revolutions, Copernican revolution, scientific revolution of the 17 th century, “French revolution in physics,” quantum-relativistic revolution, one-stage and two-stage revolutions, standard model (in physics of elementary particles), role of astronomy and mathematics
Received27.03.2021
Publication date29.03.2021
Number of characters55690
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