The Scythian Expedition of Darius I and the Old-Persian Inscription From Phanagoreia

 
PIIS032103910002905-8-1
DOI10.31857/S032103910002905-8
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Professor
Affiliation: Kazan Federal University
Address: Russian Federation, Kazan
Journal nameVestnik drevnei istorii
EditionVolume 78 Issue 4
Pages847-869
Abstract

The article presents a new interpretation of the fragment of Old-Persian inscription discovered at Phanagoreia in the 2016 excavation season. First editors of the document, V.D. Kuznetsov and A.B. Nikitin, concluded that the author of the text could be identified with Xerxes, and connected the appearance of the stone in Phanagoreia with a hypothetic military expedition of that king against the Greek poleis of Cimmerian Bosporus, which they dated before his invasion of mainland Greece. However, the remains of the text in lines 1 and 2 allow to attribute the inscription to Darius I and to connect its creation with the events of that king’s Scythian campaign (ca 513–512 BC). Herodotus (IV. 87), Ctesias of Cnidus (FGrHist 688 F 13. 21) and Dionysius of Byzantium (52) provide clear evidence of the erection by Darius’ order in immediate proximity to the bridge over the Thracian Bosporus of a symbolically significant complex of monumental constructions, including a cuneiform inscription. Following the rumour of the king’s defeat in Europe the citizens of Byzantium and Chalcedon destroyed those monuments with the purpose of proclaiming their own liberation from the Persian control and triumphing over the hybris that Darius had shown. The fragments of Darius’ inscription could be brought to Phanagoreia as a kind of a trophy, that had political relevance because of the foundation of this polis by the citizens of Teos in Asia Minor, who fled from the menace of enslavement by the Persians in 546 BC (Hdt. I. 168, Strab. XIV. 1. 30) and had the reasons to hate the Great King later. It is equally possible, however, that the stone was transported to the Cimmerian Bosporus merely as ship’s ballast.

KeywordsPhanagoreia, Old-Persian inscription, Darius I, Scythian campaign, Thracian Bosporus, Byzantium, Chalcedon
Received23.01.2019
Publication date23.01.2019
Number of characters61395
Cite  
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.

Number of purchasers: 0, views: 2239

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Abaev, V.I. Perevod Bekhistunskoj nadpisi. V kn.: V.V. Struve (red.), Khrestomatiya po istorii drevnego mira. T. 1. M., 1950. S. 255–263.

2. Abaev, V.I. Perevod Bekhistunskoj nadpisi. V kn.: M.A. Korostovtsev i dr. (red.), Khrestomatiya po istorii drevnego mira. T. 2. M., 1980. S. 24–32.

3. Abdi, K. 2006–2007: The ‘Daivā’ inscription revisited. Nāme-ye Irān-e Bāstān: The International Journal of Ancient Iranian Studies 6, 1–2, 45–74.

4. Archibald, Z.H. 1998: The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus Unmasked. Oxford.

5. Asheri, D., Lloyd, A.B., Corcella, A. 2007: A Commentary on Herodotus. Books I–IV. Oxford.

6. Balcer, J.M. 1972: The date of Herodotus IV.1 Darius’ Scythian expedition. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 76, 99–132.

7. Belfiore, S. 2009: Il Periplo del Ponto Eusino di Arriano e altri testi sul Mar Nero e il B?sforo. Spazio geografica, mito e dominio ai confini dell’impero Romano. Introduzione, traduzione e note a cura di Stefano Belfiore. Venezia.

8. Berndt-Ersoz, S. 2006: Phrygian Rock-Cut Shrines. Structure, Function, and Cult Practices. Leiden–Boston.

9. Bichler, R. 2004: Ktesias „korrigiert“ Herodot. Zur literarischen Einschätzung der Persika. In: H. Heftner, K. Tomaschitz (eds.), Festschrift für Gerhard Dobesch zum fünfundsechzigsten Geburtstag am 15. September 2004. Wien, 105–116.

10. Bichler, R., Rollinger, R. 2017: Universale Weltherrschaft und die Monumente an ihren Grenzen. In: R. Rollinger (ed.), Die Sicht auf die Welt zwischen Ost und West (750 v. Chr. – 550 n. Chr.) – Looking at the World, from the East and the West (750 BCE – 550 CE). Wiesbaden, 1–30.

11. Boteva, D. 2011: Rereading Herodotus on the Persian campaigns in Thrace. In: R. Rollinger, B. Truschnegg, R. Bichler (eds.), Herodot und das Persische Weltreich – Herodotus and the Persian Empire. Akten des 3. Internationalen Kolloquiums zum Thema “Vorderasien im Spannungsfeld klassischer und altorientalischer Überlieferungen” Innsbruck, 24.–28. November 2008. Wiesbaden, 735–759.

12. Briant, P. 2001: La lettre de Darius à Gadatas entre Perses, Grecs et Romains. In: M. Giorgieri et al. (eds.), Licia e Lidia prima dell’ellenizzazione. Atti del Convegno internazionale. Roma 11–12 ottobre 1999. Roma, 107–144.

13. Briant, P. 2002: From Cyrus to Alexander. A History of the Persian Empire. Winona Lake.

14. Canepa, M.P. 2015: Inscriptions, royal spaces and Iranian identity: Epigraphic practices in Persia and the ancient Iranian world. In: A. Eastmond (ed.), Viewing Inscriptions in the Late Antique and Medieval World. Cambridge, 10–35.

15. Chernenko, E.V. Skifo-persidskaya vojna. Kiev, 1984.

16. Chunakova, O.M. Pekhlevijskij slovar' zoroastrijskikh terminov, mificheskikh personazhej i mifologicheskikh simvolov. M., 2004.

17. Dan, A. 2011: L’Istros chez Hérodote. Dacia 55, 25–56.

18. Dan, A. 2015: Grecs et Perses sur les Détroits: le démon enchaîné et la démesure du Grand Roi. Ancient West & East 14, 191–235.

19. Dandamaev, M.A. Iran pri pervykh Akhemenidakh. M., 1963.

20. Dandamaev, M.A. Perevod Bekhistunskoj nadpisi. V kn.: V.I. Kuzischin (red.), Istoriya Drevnego Vostoka: Teksty i dokumenty. M., 2002, S. 390–397.

21. Fol, A., Hammond, N.G.L. 2008: Persia in Europe, apart from Greece. In: J. Boardman, N.G.L. Hammond, D.M. Lewis, M. Ostwald (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History. 2nd ed. Vol. IV. Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean c. 525 to 479 B.C. Cambridge, 234–253.

22. Gillis, D. 1979: Collaboration with the Persians. Wiesbaden.

23. Graham, A.J. 1992: Abdera and Teos. Journal of Hellenic Studies 112, 44–73.

24. Green, J., Stolper, M. 2015: Achemenet project. In: G.J. Stein (ed.), The Oriental Institute 2014–2015 Annual Report. Chicago, 11–15.

25. Hammond, N.G.L. 2008: The expedition of Xerxes. In: J. Boardman, N.G.L. Hammond, D.M. Lewis, M. Ostwald (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History. 2nd ed. Vol. IV. Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean c. 525 to 479 B.C. Cambridge, 518–591.

26. Harmatta, J. 1954: A recently discovered Old Persian inscription. Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 11, 1–14.

27. How, W.W., Wells, J. 1912: A Commentary on Herodotus. I–II. Oxford.

28. Huff, D., Kleiss, W. 1989: Bridges. In: Encyclopaedia Iranica. Vol. IV, fasc. 5, 449–455 (http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bridges).

29. Isaac, B. 1986: The Greek Settlements in Thrace Until the Macedonian Conquest. Leiden.

30. Joshmus, A. 1854: Notes on a journey into the Balkan, or Mount Hæmus, in 1847. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 24, 36–85.

31. Kent, R.G. 1950: Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon. New Haven.

32. King, L.W., Thompson, R.C. 1907: The Sculptures and Inscription of Darius the Great on the Rock of Behistun in Persia. London.

33. Knauß, F.S., Gagošidse, I., Babaev, I. 2013: Karačamirli. Ein persisches Paradies. ARTA: Achaemenid Research on Texts and Archaeology, no. 004. (September 2013), 1–28 (URL: http://www.achemenet.com/document/ARTA_2013.004-Knauss-Gagosidse-Babaev.pdf; data obrascheniya: 5.11.2018).

34. Kuznetsov, V.D. Metropoliya Fanagorii. Drevnosti Bospora 4, 2001, 227–235.

35. Kuznetsov, V.D. 2000–2001: Phanagoria and its Metropolis. Talanta 32–33, 67–77.

36. Kuznetsov, V.D. O vremeni osnovaniya Fanagorii. Drevnosti Bospora 14, 2010, 313–321.

37. Kuznetsov, V.D. Bospor Kimmerijskij v 5 v. do n. eh. (drevnepersidskaya nadpis' iz Fanagorii). V sb.: V.D. Kuznetsov (red.), Fanagoriya. Rezul'taty arkheologicheskikh issledovanij. T. 6. M., 2018, 160–185.

38. Kuznetsov, V.D., Nikitin, A.B. 2017: Drevnepersidskaya nadpis' iz Fanagorii. V sb.: V.D. Kuznetsov (red.), Fanagoriya. Rezul'taty arkheologicheskikh issledovanij. T. 6. M., 154–159.

39. Lecoq, P. 1997: Les inscriptions de la Perse achéménide. Paris.

40. Lenfant, D. 1996: Ctésias et Hérodote ou les réécritures de l’histoire dans la Perse achéménide. Revue des Études Grecques 109, 348–380.

41. Lewis, D.M. 1977: Sparta and Persia: Lectures Delivered at the University of Cincinnati, Autumn 1976 in Memory of Donald W. Bradeen. Leiden.

42. Loukopoulou, L.D. 1989: Contribution à l’histoire de la Thrace Propontique durant la période archaïque. Athènes.

43. Mejer, J. 2009: Artemis in Athens. In: T. Fischer-Hansen, B. Poulsen (eds.), From Artemis to Diana: The Goddess of Man and Beast. Copenhagen, 61–78.

44. Merle, H. 1916: Die Geschichte der Städte Byzantion und Kalchedon. Kiel.

45. Nevskaya, V.P. Vizantij v klassicheskuyu i ehllinisticheskuyu ehpokhi. M., 1953.

46. Nichols, A. 2008: The Fragments of Ctesias of Cnidus: Translation and Commentary with an Introduction. Diss. University of Florida (URL: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0022521/00001; data obrascheniya: 5.11.2018).

47. Nylander, C. 1968: ΑΣΣΥΡΙΑ ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΑ: Remarks on the 21 “Letter of Themistokles”. Opuscula Atheniensia 8, 19–36.

48. Rahe, P.A. 2015: The Grand Strategy of Classical Sparta: The Persian Challenge. New Haven–London.

49. Robert, L. 1932: Epigraphica. IX. Pierres errantes. Revue des Études Grecques 45, 199–203.

50. Robert, L. 1939: Hellenica XIV: Pierres errantes. Revue de Philologie 65, 181–198.

51. Robert, L. 1966: Pierres errantes, muséographie et onomastique. Berytus 16, 5–39.

52. Robert, L. 1973: De Cilicie à Messine et à Plymouth avec deux inscriptions grecques errantes. Journal des savants 3, 162–211.

53. Rollinger, R. 2013: Alexander und die großen Ströme. Die Flussüberquerun-gen im Lichte altorientalischer Pioniertechniken. Wiesbaden.

54. Rung, Eh.V. 2015: Imperskaya ideya v gosudarstve Akhemenidov. Problemy istorii, filologii, kul'tury 4, 130–140.

55. Rung, Eh.V., Chiglintsev, E.A. Darius versus Xerxem: Obrazy Dariya I i Kserksa v drevne-persidskikh tekstakh i v proizvedeniyakh Ehskhila i Gerodota. VDI 77/1, 2017. S. 696–719.

56. Russell, T. 2017: Byzantium and the Bosporus. A Historical Study, from the Seventh Century BC Until the Foundation of Constantinople. Oxford.

57. Rybakov, B.A. Gerodotova Skifiya. M., 1979.

58. Schmitt, R. 1988: Achaimenideninschriften in griechischer literarischer Überlieferung. In: A.G. Leaf (ed.), Acta Iranica. Encyclopédie permanente des études iraniennes. Leiden, 17–38.

59. Schmitt, R. 1991: The Bisitun Inscriptions of Darius the Great. Old-Persian Text. London.

60. Schmitt, R. 1992: Assyria Grammata und ähnliche: Was wussten die Griechen von Keilschrift und Keilschriften? In: C.W. Müller et al. (eds.), Zum Umgang mit fremden Sprachen in der griechisch-römischen Antike: Kolloquium der Fachrichtungen Klassische Philologie der Universitäten Leipzig und Saarbrücken am 21. und 22. November 1989 in Saarbrücken. (Palingenesia, 36). Stuttgart, 21–35.

61. Schmitt, R. 2000: The Old Persian Inscriptions of Naqshi-Rustam and Persepolis. London.

62. Schmitt, R. 2007: Pseudo-Altpersische Inschriften: Inschriftenfälschungen und moderne Nachbildungen in altpersischer Keilschrift. Wien.

63. Schmitt, R. 2009: Die altpersischen Inschriften der Achaimeniden. Editio minor mit deutscher Übersetzung. Wiesbaden.

64. Schmitt, R. 2014: Wörterbuch der altpersischen Königsinschriften. Wiesbaden.

65. Sinitsyn, A.A. Greki i monstry: ob antichnoj mifologii kak zanimatel'noj ehtnogeografii (ehskiz na temu puteshestvij i otkrytij). Bosporskie issledovaniya 31. 2015. S. 186–231.

66. Sinitsyn, A.A. Kanaty i mosty Greko-persidskoj vojny. V kn.: O.L. Gabelko i dr. (red.), IRANICA: Iranskie imperii i greko-rimskij mir v VI v. do n. eh. — VI v. n. eh. Kazan', 2017. S. 137–171.

67. Schönert-Geiss, E. 1970: Griechische Münzwerk. Die Münzpragung von Byzantion. T. 1. Berlin.

68. Stronk, J.P. 1998–1999: Crossing the Straits: The Persians in Thrace. Talanta 30–31, 55–72.

69. Struve, V.V. 1946: Pokhod Dariya I na sakov-massagetov. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk. T. III, 3, 231–250.

70. Tudor, D.-R., Surd, V. 2015: History and tourist valorization of the Ruschita Marble Quarry (Caras-Severin County, Romania). Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Geographia 60, 2, 97–122.

71. Tuplin, C.J. 2009: The Gadatas letter. In: L.G. Mitchell, L. Rubinstein (eds.), Greek History and Epigraphy: Essays in Honor of P.J. Rhodes. Swansea, 155–184.

72. Tuplin, C.R. 2010: Revisiting Dareios’ Scythian expedition. In: J. Nieling, E. Rehm (eds.), Achaemenid Impact in the Black Sea. Communication of Power. (Black Sea Studies, 11). Aarhus, 281–312.

73. Turaev, B.A. 1911: Skifiya v ieroglificheskoj nadpisi. V sb.: Sergeyu Fedorovichu Platonovu ucheniki, druz'ya i pochitateli. SPb., 358–365.

74. Unger, E. 1915: Die Dariusstele am Tearos. Archäologischer Anzeiger 30, 3–16.

75. Vallat, F. 1971: Deux nouvelles chartes de fondation d’un palais de Darius 1er à Suse. Syria. Archéologie, art et histoire T. 48, fasc. 1–2, 53–59.

76. Vasilescu, M. 2007: Études sur la crédibilité d’Hérodote III. Les stèles de Darius de Thrace. Arheologia Moldovei 30, 117–127.

77. Vasilev, M.I. 2015: The Policy of Darius and Xerxes Towards Thrace and Macedonia. Leiden.

78. Vassileva, M. 2009: Phrygian rock-cut thrones, ‘idols’ and Phrygian royal symbolism. Thracia 13, 111–124.

79. West, S. 1985: Herodotus’ epigraphical interests. Classical Quarterly 35, 278–305.

80. Yavis, C.G. 1949: Greek Altars. Origins and Typology. Saint Louis.

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up