“How Good People Live” (source studies of private life in Russia based on the materials of “spiritual affairs” of the 1660s–1670s)

 
PIIS086956870014171-9-1
DOI10.31857/S086956870014171-9
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Ryazan State University named for S.A. Yesenin
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameRossiiskaia istoriia
EditionIssue 1
Pages244-255
Abstract

          

Keywords
AcknowledgmentThis article is a translation of: V.N. Kozlyakov. «How good people live» (source studies of private life in Russia based on the materials of the «spiritual affairs» of the 1660—1670s). Rossiiskaia Istoria. 2021. № 1. P. 26–36. DOI: 10.31857/S086956870013440-5.
Received19.03.2021
Publication date19.03.2021
Number of characters51774
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1 The anthropological turn of research in the humanities has caused historians to switch their attention to the plots of the history of private and everyday life, which remained unstudied for a long time in the shadow of the problems of power and society, revolutions, social and economic history. Attention to the private sphere of social life requires the study of features of the interaction of individuals and entire communities, social life, the relationship between rule and reality in secular and canon law.
2 The study of the history of private life in Russian science began in the 1990s under the influence of Bessmertnyi, which resulted in the establishment of the Center “History of Private and Everyday Life” of the Institute of General History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In researchers’ articles published in the almanacs Casus. The Individual and Unique in History and Odysseus. Man in History, the methodological potential of the concept of private life was considered, the historiographic tradition in works on the European history of the Middle Ages and Modern Times was studied1. However, the initial optimism associated with the possibilities of cultural anthropology has already passed, the problem of studying “private” and “everyday” life is becoming a subject for discussion, historians see possible limitations due to the nature and completeness of sources: “After all, the description of a certain story, especially a single case, cannot yet be called a full-fledged study of the history of everyday life”2. 1.

2. Togoeva O.I. Istoriia prava i istoriia povsednevnosti: tochki peresecheniia [History of law and history of everyday life: intersection points] // Odissei. Chelovek v istorii [Odysseus. Man in history]. 2014. Issue 25. P. 360. (In Russ.)
3 The theme of the history of private life in Russia in the 17th century is insufficiently studied, especially in comparison with similar materials on Western European history, and published works are usually not directly related to cultural anthropology. Pushkareva’s works are created within the framework of a gender approach; she studied the history of women from the time of Ancient Rus, based on narrative sources: literary and folklore artifacts, collections of sermons, texts of questionnaires for confessions, penances, and family correspondence. The main emphasis in Pushkareva’s works is placed on various aspects of women’s emotional experiences, and the private is opposed to the social3. Kosheleva drew attention to “casus” examples of Russian history, allowing them to be interpreted in the context of the study of private history4. Selin explored the everyday life of Novgorod society during the Time of Troubles using the well-preserved “Novgorod Occupation Archive” in Sweden5. Private archives and correspondence of the 17th century are traditionally studied, which also indirectly affect the concept of “everyday life”6. There is only one area where researchers have been able to move a little further in the study of private life – wedding “behavior”, marriage rites, “church regulation” and the prehistory of metric accounting7. The historical experience of canon law, “housebuilding traditions”, problems of marriage and divorce in Orthodoxy since the time of Ancient Rus and in Russia in the 16th–17th centuries were considered by Belyakova, Naydenova, Tsaturova8. 3. Pushkareva N.L. Chastnaia zhizn' russkoi zhenshchiny: nevesta, zhena, liubovnitsa [The private life of Russian woman: bride, wife, mistress]. Moskva, 1997. (In Russ.); Pushkareva N.L. Zhenshchiny Drevnei Rusi i Moskovskogo tsarstva X–XVII vv. [Women of Ancient Russia and Muscovy of the 10th-17th centuries]. Sankt-Peterburg, 2017. (In Russ.)

4. Kosheleva O.E. Pobeg voina [Escape of the warrior] // Kazus [Casus]. 1996. Moskva, 1997. P. 55–86. (In Russ.); Kosheleva O.E. Leto 1645 goda: smena lits na rossiiskom prestole [The summer of 1645: a change of persons on the Russian throne] // Kazus [Casus]. 1999. Moskva, 1999. P. 148–170. (In Russ.)

5. Selin A.A. Smuta na Severo-Zapade v nachale XVII veka. Ocherki iz zhizni novgorodskogo obshchestva [Troubles in the Northwest at the beginning of the 17th century. Essays from the life of Novgorod society]. Sankt-Peterburg, 2017. (In Russ.)

6. Morozov B.N., Novokhatko O.V., Timoshina L.A. Arkhiv gostei Pankrat'evykh XVII – nachala XVIII v. T. 1–2 [Archive of the Pankratyevs’ guests of the 17th – early 18th centuries. Vol. 1–2]. Moskva, 2001–2007. (In Russ.); Morozov B.N., Novokhatko O.V., Timoshina L.A. Arkhiv stol'nika Andreia Il'icha Bezobrazova. Ch. 1–2 [Archive of stolnik Andrey Ilyich Bezobrazov. Parts 1–2]. Moskva, 2012–2013. (In Russ.); Morozov B.N. Chastnye arkhivy XVII v. Avtoref. dis. ... kand. ist. nauk [Private archives of the 17th century. Author’s abstract of the Ph.D. thesis in History]. Moskva, 1984. (In Russ.); Morozov B.N. Iz istorii chastnykh arkhivov kuptsov i gorozhan XVII v. [From the history of private archives of merchants and townspeople of the 17th century]. // Morozov B.N., Stefanovich P.S. Roman Vilimovich v gostiakh u Petra Ignat'evicha: pskovskii arkhiv angliiskogo kuptsa 1680-kh godov [Roman Vilimovich visiting Pyotr Ignatievich: the Pskov archive of an English merchant of the 1680s]. Moskva, 2009. P. 153–164. (In Russ.); Novokhatko O.V. Rossiia. Chastnaia perepiska XVII veka [Russia. Private correspondence of the 17th century]. Moskva, 2018. (In Russ.)

7. Bushnell J. Bor'ba za nevestu. Krest'ianskie svad'by v Riazanskom uezde 1690-kh gg. [Struggle for the bride. Peasant weddings in the Ryazan district of the 1690s] // Russkii sbornik. Issledovaniia po istorii Rossii [Russian collection. Research on the history of Russia]. 2006. Issue II. P. 81–98. (In Russ.); Pshenitsyn D.A., Cherkasova M.S. Venechnye pamiati, poshliny i zapisnye knigi XVI–XVIII vv. [Wedding letters, fees and registration books of the 16th – 18th centuries] // Vestnik Ekaterinburgskoi dukhovnoi seminarii [Bulletin of the Yekaterinburg Theological Seminary], 2018, 3(23). P. 44–95. (In Russ.); Pshenitsyn D.A., Cherkasova M.S. O predystorii metricheskogo ucheta v Rossii (XVII – pervaia polovina XVIII v.) [About the prehistory of metric accounting in Russia (17th – first half of the 18th century)] // Rossiiskaia istoriia [Russian History], 2019, no. 1. P. 86–102. (In Russ.); Cherkasova M.S. Severnaia Rus': istoriia surovogo kraia XIII–XVII vv. [Northern Rus: the history of the harsh land in the 13th-17th centuries]. Moskva, 2017. (In Russ.)

8. Belyakova E.V., Belyakova N.A., Emchenko E.B. Zhenshchina v pravoslavii. Tserkovnoe pravo i rossiiskaia praktik [Woman in Orthodoxy. Church law and Russian practice]. Moskva, 2011. P. 93–134. (In Russ.); Naydenova L.P. Mir russkogo cheloveka XVI–XVII vv. (Po Domostroiu i pamiatnikam prava) [The world of Russian man in the 16th-17th centuries (Domestic rules and monuments of law)]. Moskva, 2003. (In Russ.); Tsaturova M.K. Tri veka russkogo razvoda (XVI–XVIII veka) [Three centuries of Russian divorce (16th-18th centuries)]. Moskva, 2011. (In Russ.)
4 This article is devoted to studying source problems of research on the private life based on the materials of the church court in Russia in the second half of the 17th century9. The registration books of the Judicial Prikaz of the Ryazan Bishop’s House for the periods of 1665–1668 and 1675–1679 make it possible to refer to this topic. Manuscripts No. 13115 (hereinafter referred to as “I”) and 13105 (hereinafter referred to as “II”) entitled “Copies of petitions to the Ryazan Bishop. 18th century” are kept in the library of the State Archives of the Ryazan Region (SA RR). The books of the bishop’s Judicial Prikaz were “hidden” from researchers for a long time due to the lack of a scientific description and incorrect titles in the inventory of the manuscript collection of the archive10. Meanwhile, at the end of the 18th – beginning of the 19th century, these manuscripts were used by Archimandrite Jerome (Alyakrinsky) when compiling the “Ryazan Memorials”, which is a collection of information on the history of the Russian Church and the Ryazan Eparchy from the acts, manuscripts, and printed sources, the work on which began after the well-known Synod’s decree on sending chronicles in 1791.11 In the early 20th century, registration books of the bishop’s Judicial Prikaz became the subject of research of the Voronezh church historian Vvedenskii. He correctly assessed the significance and unique nature of the “three voluminous manuscripts (a total of more than 2,500 pages)” then kept in the collection of the Ryazan Theological Seminary, studied the history of their appearance in the seminary library from the collection of its teacher in the mid-19th century. Vvedenskii published a number of interesting documents in “Voronezh Antiquity” and “Proceedings of the Vladimir Provincial Scientific Archive Commission”12. Vvedenskii was going to write a separate work on the history of spiritual prikazes, based on the materials of the Ryazan manuscripts he discovered (the latest of them, written in the 1690s, has not yet been found). However, in the post-revolutionary period, he had to switch to the study of local history plots, and the “Academic Trial” of 1929–1930 made it impossible to continue his scientific activities13. 9. See: Nikolai (Yarushevich), hieromonk. Tserkovnyi sud v Rossii do izdaniia Sobornogo Ulozheniia Alekseia Mikhailovicha (1649 g.). (Opyt izucheniia vselenskikh i mestnykh nachal i ikh vzaimootnoshenii v drevne-russkom tserkovnom sude). Istoriko-kanonicheskoe issledovanie [Church court in Russia before the publication of the Cathedral Code of Alexei Mikhailovich (1649). (The experience of studying ecumenical and local principles and their relationship in the ancient Russian church court). Historical and canonical research]. Petrograd, 1917. (In Russ.); Poloznev D.F. Tserkovnyi sud v Rossii XVII veka [Church court in Russia of the 17th century // Istoricheskii vestnik: nauchnyi zhurnal [Historical Bulletin: Scientific Journal], 2002, 1(16). P. 117–133. (In Russ.) The entire issue of this edition of the Voronezh-Lipetsk Eparchy was devoted to modern research on the topic: “Church Court in the History of Russia” (see also the articles by Ya.N. Shchapov, E.V. Belyakova, E.B. Emchenko, L.P. Naydenova, S.L. Firov et al.), as well as the reprint of chapters of the classic work by Hieromonk Nikolai (Yarushevich). See also: Ospennikov Yu.V., Gaydenko P.I. Tserkovnyi sud na Rusi XI–XIV vekov. Istoricheskii i pravovoi aspekty [Church court in Russia in the 11th-14th centuries. Historical and legal aspects]. Sankt-Peterburg, 2020. (In Russ.)

10. SA RR, Library, No. 13115; No. 13105. See: Sevastyanova, A.A. Redkie rukopisnye knigi XVII–XIX vekov v Gosudarstvennom arkhive Riazanskoi oblasti [Rare handwritten books of the 17th – 19th centuries in the State Archive of the Ryazan Region] // Vestnik Riazanskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. S.A. Esenina [Bulletin of the Ryazan State University named for S. Yesenin], 2018, 3(60). P. 7–12. (In Russ.)

11. Jerome (Alyakrinsky), archimandrite. Riazanskie dostopamiatnosti, sobrannye arkhimandritom Ieronimom [Ryazan memorials collected by Archimandrite Jerome]. Ryazan, 1889. P. 91, 96. (In Russ.) For more details on the surviving sources on the history of the Ryazan and Murom eparchies, see: Golovina N.V. Istochniki po istorii Riazansko-Muromskoi episkopii XIV–XVII vv. Avtoref. dis. ... kand. ist. nauk [Sources on the history of the Ryazan-Murom episcopate of the 14th-17th centuries. Author’s abstract of Ph.D. thesis in History]. Nizhny Novgorod, 2012. (In Russ.)

12. Vvedenskii S.N. Materialy dlia istorii Voronezhskoi eparkhii (iz rukopisei Riazanskoi dukhovnoi seminarii) [Materials for the history of the Voronezh eparchy (from the manuscripts of the Ryazan Theological Seminary)] // Voronezhskaia starina [Voronezh Antiquity]. Issue 5. Voronezh, 1905. P. 126–135. (In Russ.); Vvedenskii S.N. Iz tserkovnoi stariny Muromskogo kraia (Materialy dlia istorii monastyrei i prikhodov v gor. Murome i ego uezde, izvlechennye iz rukopisei biblioteki Riazanskoi dukhovnoi seminarii) [From church antiquity of the Murom region (Materials for the history of monasteries and parishes in the city of Murom and its district, extracted from the manuscripts of the library of the Ryazan Theological Seminary)] // Trudy Vladimirskoi uchenoi arkhivnoi komissii [Proceedings of the Vladimir Scientific Archive Commission]. Book 11. Vladimir, 1910. P. 3–22. (In Russ.)

13. Sergei Nikolaevich Vvedenskii (1867–1940): Biobibliograficheskii ukazatel' [Sergei Nikolaevich Vvedenskii (1867–1940): Bibliographic index]. Voronezh, 1997. (In Russ.)

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