U.S. Information and Biotechnology: Catalyzing Effect of COVID-19

 
PIIS086904990014233-8-1
DOI10.31857/S086904990014233-8
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Research Fellow
Affiliation: Institute of World·Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameObshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost
EditionIssue 2
Pages36-52
Abstract

Information technologies have long been used for biological research. However, the COVID-19 pandemic became a catalyst for consolidating the resources of the U.S. IT-industry in this sphere, including private and public, civilian and military entities. Moreover, in the United States biotechnologies is considered as one of the main areas, which development directly depends on the success of artificial intelligence research. The article considers the role of U.S. leading IT-companies in the fight against the pandemic, some approaches of U.S. government agencies to conducting biological research, proposals of the National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence of the United States in the development of the biotechnology industry.

KeywordsUSA, artificial intelligence, machine learning, supercomputers, high performance computing, biotechnology, dual use research
Received31.05.2021
Publication date01.06.2021
Number of characters36372
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1 В январе 2021 г. Комиссия национальной безопасности по искусственному интеллекту National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence (NSCAI) опубликовала черновик итогового отчета с выводами и рекомендациями о том, как Соединенным Штатам следует развивать отрасль искусственного интеллекта (ИИ) [NSCAI 2021]. Масштабная работа государственных и частных структур США привела к важнейшему выводу: область создания ИИ – всего лишь первый шаг на пути глобального развития ряда других сфер (associated technologies). По мнению Комиссии, они имеют наибольшее стратегическое значение. Искусственный интеллект должен стать своего рода катализатором для их развития.
2 Первоочередным направлением работы авторы документа назвали не квантовые вычисления, перспективные беспроводные сети связи (включая 5G), автономные системы, робототехнику, перспективные методы производства или энергетику. Все они, конечно, входят в этот перечень. Однако приоритет отдан биотехнологиям. Сделать их одним из основных драйверов экономической конкурентоспособности призван ИИ [NSCAI 2021].
3 Важность развития биотехнологий объяснена и необходимостью обеспечения биобезопасности. Комиссия указывает, что современные технологии позволяют программировать патогены на поражение определенных целей. В качестве примера последствий, которые может вызвать распространение новой высокозаразной инфекции, авторы приводят ситуацию с пандемией COVID-19 [NSCAI 2021].
4 В 1941 г. налет японской авиации на базу Перл-Харбор стал формальным поводом для вступления США во Вторую мировую войну. В 2001 г. террористическая атака на башни-близнецы послужила основанием для начала «крестового похода» неоконсерваторов против терроризма [Кислицын 2020]. Точно так же пандемия COVID-19 была использована для консолидации научного и технического потенциала США в области информационных и биотехнологий [insideHPC 2020j]. Оказалось, что ключевые ИТ-компании США, чьи ведущие специалисты входят в состав Комиссии, – это больше, чем просто производители программного и аппаратного обеспечения.
5

ИТ-отрасль США в борьбе с COVID-19

6 С началом пандемии ИТ-отрасль активно включилась в борьбу с инфекцией, используя передовые технологии в области методов машинного обучения и систем высокопроизводительных вычислений (больше известных как искусственный интеллект и суперкомпьютеры, соответственно). Исследователи активно применяют их для математического моделирования при решении таких задач, как:
7
  1. изучение самого вируса и его эволюции, разработка методов и средств выявления заболевших, лечение и вакцинация;
  2. анализ моделей распространения инфекции (в масштабах от всего мира до помещений ограниченного объема), оценка эффективности контрмер, прогнозирование смертности и изучение фундаментальных физических принципов, определяющих динамику передачи патогенов [Bourouiba Group 2020; insideBIGDATA 2020c; insideHPC 2020k; insideHPC 2020l; insideHPC 2020n; insideHPC 2020s; Krishnan 2020; Martineau 2020; XSEDE 2020].

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