Perception of cultural differences and intercultural competence among Russian students with different levels of creativity

 
PIIS086904990008515-8-1
DOI10.31857/S086904990008515-8
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Trainee researcher
Affiliation: Center for socio-cultural research of the Expert Institute Of the national research University Higher school of Economics”
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameObshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost
EditionIssue 1
Pages132-147
Abstract

Numerous foreign studies have shown that intercultural interactions can stimulate creativity when a person is adapted enough to such an experience. Intercultural competence can be seen as an indicator of such adaptation. However, recent studies have shown ambiguous relationship between components of intercultural competence and creativity. This study is a qualitative analysis of the perception of intercultural differences and intercultural competence among creative and non-creative Russian students. The study was conducted in order to clarify the previously identified patterns of the relationship between components of intercultural competence and creativity. The results of a content analysis of 30 interviews showed that creative and non-creative Russian students have different perceptions of the cultural differences existing between foreigners and Russians, and, accordingly, different views on the content of intercultural competence which they need.

KeywordsCreativity, intercultural competence, knowledge, attitudes, behavior adaptation, cultural differences, content analysis
Received01.03.2020
Publication date02.03.2020
Number of characters39162
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1 Проблематика социально-психологических последствий межкультурных контактов стала особенно актуальна в последние десятилетия в связи с ростом и распространением процессов глобализации [Chao, Kung, Yao 2015]. Особый интерес вызывают вопросы межкультурного взаимодействия в образовательной среде. Современные университеты становятся площадкой для реализации межкультурных контактов, так как предлагают своим студентам возможности приобретения межкультурного опыта. Мультикультурный опыт охватывает опыт всех прямых и косвенных контактов с представителями или элементами других культур [Leung, Chiu 2008; Aytug, Rua, Brazeal, Almaraz, Gonzalez 2018). При этом речь идет как о “большом мультикультурном опыте” (“Big M experience”) [Rich 2009)] через международные стажировки, проживание за рубежом и включение в новую культуру, так и о “малом мультикультурном опыте” (“Little M experience”) [Rich 2009], ограниченном взаимодействием с представителями других культур или культурными продуктами без непосредственной вовлеченности в чужую культуру.
2 Говоря о “малом мультикультурном опыте” необходимо отметить, что количество иностранных студентов в России постоянно растет и в абсолютном, и в процентном количестве. При этом около трети всех иностранных студентов обучается в вузах Москвы и Санкт-Петербурга. Эти же города наиболее популярны для иностранных студентов из культурно далеких от России стран [Громов 2016]. Подобная динамика в целом соответствует целям, реализуемым в рамках государственного проекта 5-100, в соответствии с которыми “экспорт российского образования должен стать национальной задачей” [Проект 5-100]. При этом большинство исследований возникающего культурного разнообразия в образовательной среде направлено на выявление особенностей адаптации иностранных студентов в России [Дорожкин, Мазитова 2007; Кривцова 2011; Беккер, Иванчин 2015; Попова 2019], построения мультикультурной образовательной среды преподавания в ней [Мошняга 2017]. Однако особенности межкультурных взаимодействий, адаптации к ним и связанных с этим изменений у принимающего населения часто оказываются не в фокусе внимания исследователей. Кроме того, мультикультурность в основном рассматривается как проблема, как вызов. В то же время мультикультурность может стать ресурсом для развития “компетенций XX века”, к которым в числе прочих относится креативность [Miron-Spektor, Beenen 2015; Фрумин, Добрякова, Баранников, Реморенко 2018].
3 Среди большого числа рассматриваемых учеными феноменов, подпадающих под влияние межкультурного опыта, особое место занимает креативность, воплощаемая в создании нового и полезного/релевантного продукта (материального или нематериального). Креативность считается одной из ключевых компетенций, которые необходимо развивать на всех уровнях образования, и современные учебные заведения постулируют подобное развитие креативности их учащихся в качестве одной из важнейших целей [KEA 2009].

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