Organizational Social Capital as Factor of the Survival of Russian Industrial Enterprises in a Crisis

 
PIIS086904990007561-9-1
DOI10.31857/S086904990007561-9
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Occupation: Intern-researcher at the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Affiliation: Student of the program on Master’s program on Applied Methods of Social Analysis of Markets, National Research University Higher School of Economics, intern-researcher at the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, National Research University Highe
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Occupation: Senior Researcher of the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Affiliation: Dr. Sc. (economics), professor of the Faculty of Social Sciences, Senior Researcher of the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, National Research University Higher School of Economics
Address: Russian Federation,Moscow
Journal nameObshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost
EditionIssue 6
Pages5-26
Abstract

Based on a representative survey of 300 manufacturing enterprises, as well as on dataset collected by the authors and containing information on the status and main economic indicators of the analyzed companies, the paper discusses the influence of organizational social capital on the survival of Russian industrial enterprises during the economic crisis. Three indicators here measured the organizational social capital, i.e. relations between managers and employees: trust, the degree of formality of relations, and cooperation between managers and employees. The paper concludes that only the level of cooperation between managers and employees measured by the responses of workers positively influenced the chances of survival of an industrial enterprise during a crisis, while the trust and the level of formality of relations turned out to be insignificant in a Russian setting.

KeywordsOrganizational social capital, economic crisis, industrial enterprise, cooperation; trust
Received18.12.2019
Publication date23.12.2019
Number of characters53876
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1 Изучение социально-экономического механизма и последствий экономических кризисов на уровне фирмы важно по двум группам причин. Во-первых, это причины, лежащие на стороне социальной теории. Согласно теории множественности капитализмов (varieties of capitalism theory), различные капиталистические системы дифференцируются прежде всего по особенностям основных субъектов экономики – капиталистов (их мотивацией, наличием или отсутствием связей с государством, возможностями воздействия на рынок и др.). Кроме того, они отличаются механизмами регуляции поведения субъектов – ролью политических факторов, формальных и неформальных норм, жесткостью регулирования рынка труда и т.п. Хотя периодические экономические кризисы – черта всех типов капитализма, однако глубина, характер протекания и социально-экономические последствия рецессий у них различны. В одних кризис переживается тяжелее, и восстановление происходит медленнее, в других – быстрее [Hall 2018; Feldmann 2017; Heyes, Lewis, Clark 2012; Drahokoupil, Myant 2010]. В связи с этим важно понять, в каком направлении и в какой мере российская модель капитализма оказывает влияние на преодоление кризиса. Во-вторых, это важно с точки зрения практической социально-экономической политики, так как понимание особенностей механизма воздействия кризиса на уровне предприятий может дать возможность менеджерам различного ранга разработать меры по демпфированию его негативных последствий.
2 Особенность нашего исследования – концентрация на роли организационного социального капитала в выживании российских предприятий обрабатывающей промышленности в условиях кризиса 2008 г. Сначала мы остановимся на теоретическом анализе экономического кризиса в социальных науках, потом рассмотрим подходы к определению и анализу социального капитала, и в частности организационного социального капитала, затем предложим операционализацию понятия организационного социального капитала. Далее будет описана методология сбора и анализа данных и приведены результаты проведенного эмпирического исследования.
3 Экономический кризис и его влияние на предприятия Теоретические представления об экономических кризисах в экономической социологии можно разделить на две группы по оценке их роли в социально-экономическом развитии. Первая группа – “критическоеˮ направление с акцентом на негативные последствия кризисов и критике социальной системы, не позволяющей их избежать. Вторая – “функциональноеˮ направление, для которого характерна трактовка кризисов как неотъемлемого элемента развития социально-экономической системы, устраняющего дисфункциональные, устаревшие структуры.
4 Самый известный представитель первого направления среди классиков – К. Маркс, рассматривавший периодические экономические кризисы как показатель фундаментальных недостатков капиталистической системы, без устранения которой общество не сможет дальше нормально развиваться. По Марксу, они – проявление анархии капиталистического производства, возникаещей из-за “основного противоречия капитализмаˮ, что для общества является своего рода катастрофой. Такой подход в настоящее время эволюционировал в неомарксистской литературе и также используется для анализа современных кризисов. Вот один из “рецептов леченияˮ современных экономических кризисов: «Для устранения этих кризисов необходимо устранить производство “стоимостиˮ и цель накопления вечной “стоимостиˮ, а вместо этого производить продукцию для удовлетворения потребностей людей и сделать саморазвитие человека целью нашей деятельности» [Kliman 2015, р. 273].

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