Development of the Preventive Diplomacy’ Principles in the USA in the Years of the Pre-War Aggravation of International Relations (the Beginning of the 20th Century)

 
PIIS013038640008667-1-1
DOI10.31857/S013038640008667-1
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameNovaia i noveishaia istoriia
EditionIssue 2
Pages204-215
Abstract

On the eve of the World War I, marked by a number of regional conflicts between the European powers, the search for a peaceful settlement of international disputes was intensified in the United States. Such steps were not triggered by abstract pacifism, but by pragmatic considerations about the priority of U.S. national interests at the initial stage of globalization of world politics. Lacking the means to solve them by force, the political leadership preferred methods of preventive diplomacy. Various social forces, ranging from the highest ranking politicians to representatives of a mostly pacifistic camp, fought for the creation of a supranational body that could assume the functions of the supreme arbiter under the U.S. auspices. Although the most famous of the debated projects was President W. Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” speech, delivered in January 1918, the little studied in Russian historiography concepts of T. Roosevelt, W. Taft, and W. J. Bryan (who advocated arbitration as a body of international justice) were of no less scholarly significance. One of the first attempts to use peaceful means to resolve international crises was President Roosevelt’s mediation during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904—1905 and the first Moroccan crisis of 1905—1906. International arbitration was often used as an optimal means for resolving regional conflicts during the presidency of Taft. The ideas about the creation of arbitration court proposed by Secretary of State Bryan of the W. Wilson Administration, were implemented in 30 bilateral pacts of “reconciliation” on the eve of the First World War. The legal aspects of arbitration developed in the USA, including the creation of a permanent court of international justice within the League of Nations, were taken into account in the formation of the Versailles-Washington system of international relations.

Keywordsthe post-World War I order, international arbitration, court of arbitration, the Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907, Roosevelt’s mediation, Taft arbitration treaties, League to Enforce Peace, W. J. Bryan’s cooling-off laws
Received29.04.2020
Publication date30.04.2020
Number of characters30656
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