Turkey and Azerbaijan: One Nation – One State?

 
PIIS013122270018651-7-1
DOI10.20542/0131-2227-2022-66-2-90-100
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO)
Address: 23, Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation
Journal nameMirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia
EditionVolume 66 Issue 2
Pages90-100
Abstract

The article scrutinizes Turkish-Azerbaijani key areas of cooperation – political, economic, military-technical, cultural and humanitarian. For instance, in addition to intensive interaction at the level of high-ranking political elites, Azerbaijani-Turkish unity in the political context is largely built on the basis of classifying foreign policy partners into common friends and common enemies (the “friend-foe” principle). Thus, both Ankara and Baku are building friendly relations with the Turkic states of Central Asia. At the same time, Armenia acts as a common “enemy”. In the military sphere, both states seek to form Turkey-oriented militarized structures and, moreover, to create a unified Turkic army in the long term. The nature of economic relations between Azerbaijan and Turkey is largely based on a competitive basis. Energy acts as a unifying and at the same time a divisive factor since both states strive for leadership in this area, seeking to occupy a special place in the regional energy market. In the cultural and humanitarian sphere, the unfolding Turkey-centric integration is of particular importance. The author comes to the conclusion that nowadays the bilateral relations between Turkey and Azerbaijan are characterized by the “merging” of the two countries into a single Turkey-centric space, which manifests in almost all fields of interaction. The Republic of Turkey seeks to influence Baku in order to make it a reference point of the “Turkic world” under its auspices. This trend is most likely to strengthen in the future.

KeywordsTurkey, Azerbaijan, Transcaucasia, Nagorno-Karabakh, “Turkic world”, pan-Turkism, cooperation, foreign policy, energy
Received16.02.2022
Publication date18.02.2022
Number of characters33632
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1 Внешнюю политику Азербайджана отличает поиск политической идентичности и своего места во внешнеполитической среде, который продолжается с момента распада СССР [1, c. 5]. Россия в 1990-е годы не имела достаточных ресурсов и воли для выстраивания конструктивных связей с бывшими советскими республиками. На начальном этапе своего независимого существования Азербайджанская Республика нуждалась во внешней поддержке, которую получила от Турции, включившей в свою негласную внешнеполитическую стратегию курс на Центральную Азию и Закавказье. Фраза министра иностранных дел Турции М. Чавушоглу об “одном государстве” в контексте Турции и Азербайджана появилась неслучайно. Сегодня она точно характеризует сложившиеся отношения между двумя республиками – Азербайджанской и Турецкой. За годы тесного сотрудничества двустороннее турецко-азербайджанское взаимодействие из поддержки переросло в ряд амбициозных внешнеполитических концептов, в рамках которых Азербайджан встраивается в турецкую систему международного сотрудничества.
2

РЕТРОСПЕКТИВА ТУРЕЦКО-АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНСКИХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ

3 Государства Южного Кавказа, благодаря своему выгодному геополитическому расположению, обладающие к тому же большими запасами природных ресурсов, на протяжении истории представляли особый интерес для ряда стран. За часть территорий, которые сегодня принадлежат Азербайджану, в свое время конкурировали три империи – Российская, Персидская и Османская. Причем для последней раздел азербайджанских земель на протяжении почти всего XIX в. имел особую важность, прежде всего как для наследницы завоеваний династии Сельджукидов, повлиявших в свою очередь на тюркизацию обосновавшегося там впоследствии азербайджанского народа. По мере роста стремления османов укрепиться в Закавказье и развития в стране идей пантюркизма [2] интерес Турции к Азербайджану только усиливался. Во времена Республики М.К. Ататюрк также поддерживал в достаточной степени дружественные отношения с Азербайджанской ССР.
4 Тем не менее несмотря на тесные контакты, история двусторонних отношений современных Азербайджана и Турции во многом берет свое начало с 90-х годов. Точкой отсчета является 1991 г., ознаменовавший не только распад Советского Союза, но и образование 15 независимых государств [3, c. 71], одним из которых стала Азербайджанская Республика. Основные направления внешней политики Азербайджана прослеживались уже тогда в официальной символике государства. В 1991 г. был утвержден флаг Азербайджанской Республики – триколор, где голубой цвет призван подчеркнуть тюркское происхождение народа, красный означает курс на построение демократии, а зеленый символизирует принадлежность государства к исламскому миру [4]. Особенно в этом контексте интересен выбор небесно-голубого цвета, который предположительно является отсылкой к древним “Небесным тюркам” (Göktürk) – предкам всех современных тюрок, основавших в 552 г. одно из крупнейших на тот момент государств – Тюркский каганат [5].

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Система Orphus

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