Chinese Partnership Strategy: Practice and its Conceptualisation (1993–2018)

 
PIIS013122270004349-4-1
DOI10.20542/0131-2227-2019-63-3-83-93
Publication type Article
Status Published
Authors
Affiliation: Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)
Journal nameMirovaia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia
EditionVolume 63 Issue 3
Pages83-93
Abstract

The article deals with "partnership relations" (huoban guanxi 伙伴关系), the main content of China's diplomacy from 1993 to 2018, which were established with 100 countries in five macro-regions of the world. The global "network of relations" created allows Beijing to use the "pivot states" (zhidian guojia 支点国家) to protect its core interests, and the "broker states" (jiedian guojia 结点国家) – to expand international cooperation resources. Recently, Chinese scientists have succeeded in composing a "matrix of partnerships" (in the form of tables presented in the article) with a strictly hierarchical structure of partner countries location in accordance with Chinese criteria for their significance. The author has aspired to present China’s logic of building diplomatic strategies in the fullest possible manner, as well as to disclose the content of the topic in the context of formation of Chinese diplomacy, with the extensive use of sources published in the PRC over the last decade. The methodological toolkit employed in the article is the process approach proposed by Qin Yaqing, inscribed in the theoretical pattern of process constructivism (guocheng jiangou zhuyi) and normative approach. This analytical format is used so far only in Chinese studies of world politics. The author concludes that global governance built on relations is China's foreign policy practice, which often acts as an alternative to the Western global governance based on rules. The twenty-five years of experience in partnerships built on relationship management allowed China to build a holistic global diplomatic network, which is distinguished by long-term tasks, flexible forms and inclusive value orientations, which is now considered as bringing Chinese world view into the modern system of international relations. As can be seen from the article, these value orientations of China, meanwhile, are not always perceived by other countries as sufficient and necessary to replace the existing universal values of the world system.

KeywordsChina's diplomacy, partnership, diplomatic strategies, process constructivism, pivot states, broker states
Received19.03.2019
Publication date26.03.2019
Number of characters36755
Cite  
100 rub.
When subscribing to an article or issue, the user can download PDF, evaluate the publication or contact the author. Need to register.
Размещенный ниже текст является ознакомительной версией и может не соответствовать печатной
1 Стратегия партнерских отношений в качестве главного нарратива дипломатии Китая появилась на свет как ответ на критические внешние условия (фактически международная изоляция), которые сложились вокруг Китая после "событий 4 июня 1989", когда были подавлены выступления студентов на площади Тяньаньмэнь. Запад ввел против КНР санкции, действующие по сей день, и запретил экспорт в эту страну военной техники, оборудования и технологий двойного назначения. Распад Советского Союза в 1991 г., наступление периода однополярности в мировой политике также способствовали потери интереса США к Китаю как стратегическому партнеру. С учетом сложившейся международной ситуации, в 1992 г. на XIV съезде КПК была сформулирована новая "коренная дипломатическая стратегия" (核心的外交战略) как мирная дипломатия, выступающая против гегемонизма, под которым теперь однозначно понимались Соединенные Штаты, ранее под этим термином имелся в виду СССР. Решения съезда подвели черту и под периодом стратегического альянса между Вашингтоном и Пекином (приблизительно 1971–1991 гг.), который сложился между ними в борьбе против Советского Союза и выражался в формуле Мао Цзэдуна "стратегия одного фронта (одной линии)" (“一条线”战略). Период с 1989 по 1995 г. ученые университета Цинхуа назвали поворотом к консерватизму (a conservative turn) как во внутренней, так и внешней политике [1, p. 9]. "Партнерские отношения" Китая складывались постепенно, на первый взгляд даже хаотично, как новый инструментарий дипломатической практики, который впоследствии по прошествии довольно длительного времени был обозначен как "дипломатическая стратегия" в глобальном сетецентричном измерении.
2

ОБЗОР БИБЛИОГРАФИИ

3 Исследования российских ученых современной дипломатии Китая главным образом касаются публичной [2], экономической [3; 4; 5] и культурной [6] дипломатии. Вместе с тем ряд работ исследуют период партнерских отношений Китая. Так, М.В. Мамонов в "системе внешнеполитических приоритетов современного Китая" отмечает, что во второй половине 1990-х годов руководство КНР произвело корректировку внешней политики и стало формировать внешнеполитическую стратегию как целостного комплекса мер по реализации "стратегии глобального добрососедства". В каком-то смысле, отмечает ученый, это была политика "глобальной профилактики внешних угроз", – понимаемых шире, чем только в военно-политическом смысле [7, c. 421]. Н.В. Козыкина и К.Г. Муратшина в учебном пособии "Особенности дипломатии современного Китая" рассматривают модели стратегического партнерства Китая, но саму политику партнерства КНР соотносят только со странами Африки [8].
4 Наиболее подробно дипломатия партнерских отношений была изучена В.Я. Портяковым в статье "Партнерство как инструмент современной внешней политики КНР". Ученый пишет, что с начала 1990-х годов одним из важнейших направлений обновления внешнеполитического инструментария Китая стало создание системы партнерских отношений с различными государствами. В первую очередь партнерские отношения устанавливались с соседями, однако затем процесс вышел далеко за рамки близлежащего географического ареала, и в настоящее время Китай имеет партнерские отношения с несколькими десятками стран буквально по всему миру [9].

Number of purchasers: 2, views: 968

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Pang Xun, Liu Lida, Ma Stephanie. China’s Networking Strategy for Seeking Great Power Status. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 2017, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-29.

2. Krivokhizh S.V. Publichnaya diplomatiya Kitajskoj Narodnoj Respubliki: stanovlenie i razvitie. Diss. kand. ist. nauk. Sankt-Peterburgskij gosudarstvennyj universitet, 2014 [Krivokhizh S.V. Publichnaya diplomatiya Kitaiskoi Narodnoi Respubliki: stanovlenie i razvitie [Public Diplomacy of People's Republic of China]. Cand. Sci. diss. (Hist.). St. Petersburg State University, 2014]. Available at: https://disser.spbu.ru/disser2/disser/krivohij_public_diplomacy_disser.pdf (accessed 10.06.2017).

3. Leksyutina Ya.V. Ehkonomicheskaya diplomatiya Kitaya v 21 veke. Problemy Dal'nego Vostoka, 2015, № 2, sc. 24-37 [Leksyutina Ya.V. Ekonomicheskaya diplomatiya Kitaya v 21 veke [Economic Diplomacy of China in 21st century]. Problemy Dal'nego Vostoka, 2015, no. 2, pp. 24-37.]

4. Tsvyk A.V. Ehkonomicheskaya diplomatiya Kitaya: osnovnye cherty. Regional'naya ehkonomika i upravlenie, 2013, № 1 (33), ss. 21-37 [Tsvyk A.V. Ekonomicheskaya diplomatiya Kitaya: osnovnye cherty [Chinese Economic Diplomacy: main features]. Regionalnaya economica i upravleniye, 2013, no. 1 (33), pp. 24-37.]

5. Nikitina M.G., Pyzhik S.A. Neftyanaya diplomatiya Kitajskoj Narodnoj Respubliki. Uchenye zapiski Tavricheskogo natsional'nogo universiteta imeni V.I. Vernadskogo. Seriya "Ehkonomika i upravlenie". 2014, t. 27 (66), № 1, ss. 94-100 [Nikitina M.G., Pyzhyk S. A. Neftyanaya diplomatiya Kitaiskoi Narodnoi Respubliki [Oil diplomacy of People's Republic of China]. Uchenyye zapiski Tavricheskogo natsionalnogo universiteta imeni V.I. Vernadskogo. Seriya "Economica i upravleniye" [Scientific notes of Tauride national University named after V.I. Vernadsky. Series "Economics and management"]. 2014, vol. 27 (66), no. 1, pp. 94-100.]

6. Votintseva K.A. Kul'turnaya diplomatiya Kitaya. Gumanitarnye nauchnye issledovaniya. 2014, № 11. [Votintseva K.A. Kul'turnaya diplomatiya Kitaya [Cultural Diplomacy of China]. Gumanitarnye nauchnye issledovaniya, 2014, no. 11. (Available at: http://human.snauka.ru/2014/11/8065 (accessed 13.11.2018)].

7. Bogaturov A.D., otv. red. Sovremennaya mirovaya politika. Prikladnoj analiz. 2-oe izd., ispr. i dop. Moskva, Aspekt Press, 2010. 592 s. [Bogaturov A.D., ed. Sovremennaya mirovaya politika. Prikladnoi analiz [Modern World Politics. Applied Analysis]. 2nd edition, Moscow, Aspekt Press, 2010. 592 p.]

8. Kozykina N.V., Muratshina K.G. Osobennosti diplomatii sovremennogo Kitaya. Uchebnoe posobie. Mikhajlenko V.I., nauch. red. Ekaterinburg, Izd-vo Ural'skogo universiteta, 2017. [Kozykina N.V., Muratshina K.G. Osobennosti diplomatii sovremennogo Kitaya. Uchebnoe posobie [Diplomatic Features of Modern China. Study guide]. Mikhailenko V.I., ed. Ekaterinburg, Izd-vo Ural'skogo universiteta, 2017.] Available at: http://elar.urfu.ru/bitstream/10995/53214/1/978-5-7996-2135-3_2017.pdf (accessed 13.11.2018).

9. Portyakov V.Ya. Partnerstvo kak instrument sovremennoj vneshnej politiki KNR. Obschestvo i gosudarstvo v Kitae: XLI nauchnaya konferentsiya. Institut vostokovedeniya RAN Moskva, Vostochnaya literatura, 2011, ss. 204-207. [Portyakov V.Ya. Partnerstvo kak instrument sovremennoi vneshnei politiki KNR [Partnership as a tool of modern Chinese foreign policy]. Obshchestvo i gosudarstvo v Kitae: XLI nauchnaya konferentsiya [Society and state in China: XLI scientific conference]. Institut vostokovedeniya RAN, Moscow, Vostochnaya literatura, 2011, pp. 204-207.]

10. Hamilton Daniel S. The American Way of Partnership, Working Paper 6. Madrid/Brussels: FRDE/EGMONT, June 2014. Available at: http://ibdigital.uib.es/greenstone/collect/cd2/index/assoc/fride001/1.dir/fride0011.pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).

11. Tellis Ashley J. Seeking Alliances and Partnership: The Long Road to Confederationism in U.S. Grand Strategy. Strategic Asia 2014-15: U.S. Alliances and Partnership at the Center of Global Power. Tellis Ashley J., Denmark Abraham M., Chaffin Greg, eds. Seattle, The National Bureau of Asian Research, 2014. Available at: https://www.nbr.org/publication/strategic-asia-2014-15-u-s-alliances-and-partnerships-at-the-center-of-global-power (accessed 12.11.2018).

12. Parameswaran Prashanth. Explaining US Strategic Partnerships in the Asia-Pacific Region: Origins, Developments and Prospects. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 2014, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 262-289.

13. Kumar Satish, et al. India’s Strategic Partners: A Comparative Assessment. New Delhi, Foundation for National Security Research, 2011. Available at: http://www.fnsr.org/files/Indias_Strategic.pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).

14. Strategic Partnership as an Instrument of EU Foreign Policy, Workshop Report, November 2015. Available at: http://www.egmontinstitute.be/content/uploads/2015/12/Strategic-Partnership-Workshop-Report-final.pdf?type=pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).

15. Renard Thomas. The EU Strategic Partnerships Review: Ten Guiding Principles. Policy Brief, no. 2, April 2012. Available at: https://www.ies.be/files/private/28)%20Renard%20-20Ten%20Guiding%20Principles.pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).

16. Renard Thomas. Strategy Wanted: The European Union and Strategic Partnerships, Security Policy Brief, no. 13, September 2010. Available at: http://aei.pitt.edu/15061/1/SPB13-EU-Strategic-Partnerships.pdf (accessed 12.11.2018).

17. Wuthnow Joel. Chinese Diplomacy and the UN Security Council: Beyond the Veto. London, New York, Routledge, 2013. 385 p.

18. Hartig Falk. Chinese Public Diplomacy: The Rise of the Confucius Institute. London, New York, Routledge, 2016. 216 p.

19. Gao Jia, Ingram Catherine, Kee Pookong eds. Global Media and Public Diplomacy in Sino-Western Relations. London, New York, Routledge, 2017. 218 p.

20. Zhang Xiaotong, Wang Hongyu, et al. Chinese Economic Diplomacy: The PRC's Growing International Influence in the 21st Century. Beijing, Beijing Alain Charles Advertising Limited, 2015. 236 p.

21. Oyen Meredith. The Diplomacy of Migration: Transnational Lives and the Making of U.S.-Chinese Relations in the Cold War. Ithaca, London, Cornell University Press, 2015. 308 p.

22. Karrar Hasan H. The New Silk Road Diplomacy: China’s Central Asian Foreign Policy since the Cold War. Vancouver, UBC Press, 2009. 252 p.

23. Keevak Michael. Embassies to China: Diplomacy and Cultural Encounters Before the Opium Wars. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017. 162 p.

24. Solomon Richard H., Chas W. Freeman Jr. Chinese Negotiating Behavior: Pursuing Interests Through “Old Friends”. Washington, United States Institute of Peace Press, 2016. 204 p.

25. Hall Todd H. Emotional Diplomacy: Official Emotion on the International Stage. Ithaca, London, Cornell University Press, 2015. 264 p.

26. Cooper John F. China’s Foreign Aid and Investment Diplomacy, Volume I: Nature, Scope, and Origins. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 283 p.

27. Jian B.M. China’s Soft Power Diplomacy in South Asia: Myth or Reality? Lanham, Maryland, Lexington Books, 2017. 172 p.

28. Reeves Jeffrey. Imperialism and the Middle Kingdom: The Xi Jinping administration’s peripheral diplomacy with developing states. Third World Quarterly, 2018, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 976-998.

29. Pan Zhongqi, ed. Conceptual Gaps in China-EU Relations: Global Governance, Human Rights and Strategic Partnerships. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. 246 p.

30. Struver Georg. China’s Partnership Diplomacy: International Alignment Based on Interests or Ideology. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, Mach 2017, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 31-65.

31. 门洪华,刘笑阳:“中国伙伴关系战略评估与展望” 载 世界经济与政治 2015第2期第65-95叶 [Men Honghua, Liu Xiaoyang. Chinese Partnership Strategy: Assessment and Perspective. World Economics and Politics, 2015, no. 2, pp. 65-95 (In Chin.)]

32. 苏格: “习近平外交战略思想全面领航” 载 国际问题研究 2016第5期 [Su Ge. Comprehensive Analysis of Xi Jinping's Ideas on Diplomatic Strategies. International Studies, 2016, no. 5. (In Chin.)] Available at: http://www.ciis.org.cn/gyzz/2016-09/26/content_9057017.htm (accessed 13.11.2018).

33. 门洪华: “中国崛起及战略应对” 载 国际观察 2004第3期第9-16叶 [Men Honghua. China's Rise and its strategic response. International Review, 2004, no. 3, pp. 9-16 (In Chin.)].

34. 当代中国外交概论/李宝俊著。- 北京: 北京大学出版社,2005年 ,275 叶 [Li Baojun. Introduction to Diplomacy of Modern China. Beijing, Bejing University Press, 2005. 275 p. (In Chin.)]

35. 中国国际战略导论/门洪华著。-北京: 清华大学出版社 [Men Honghua. Introduction to Chinese International Strategy. Shanghai, People’s Publishing House, 2010 (In Chin.)] Available at: https://item.jd.com/27137532830.html (accessed 13.11.2018)].

36. 孙学峰,丁鲁: “伙伴国类型与中国伙伴关系升级”载 世界经济与政治 2017年第2期第54-76叶 [Sun Xuefeng, Ding Lu. Explaining the Upgrading of China's Partnership: Pivot Partners, Broker Partners and Beyond. World Economics and Politics, 2017, no. 2, pp. 54-76 (In Chin.)]

37. 曹德军: “国际政治“关系理论”: 概念,路径与挑战”载 世界经济与政治 2017年第2期第36-53叶 [Cao Dejun. The Relational Theory of International Politics in Chinese Context: Concepts, Approaches and Challenges. World Economics and Politics, 2017, no.2, pp. 36-53 (In Chin.)]

38. Qin Yaqing. Culture and global thought: Chinese international theory in the making. Revista CIDOB d’Afers Internacionals, 2013, no.100, pp. 67-89.

39. 秦亚青:“关系本位与过程建构:将中国理念植入国际关系理论” 载 中国社会科学 2009年第4期第69-86叶 [Qin Yaqing. Relations as basis and Process construction: Chinese Conceptions’ entry to IR Theory. Chinese Social Sciences, 2009, vol. 4, pp. 69-86 (In Chin.)]

40. 关系与过程:中国国际关系理论的文化建构/秦亚青著。-上海: 上海人民出版社2012年,274叶 [Qin Yaqing. Relations and Process: Cultural Foundations of Chinese IR Theory. Shanghai, People's Publishing House, 2012. 274 p. (In Chin.)]

41. 秦亚青, [加拿大] 阿米塔夫 阿查亚: “国际政治的关系理论的新探索” 载 "世界经济与政治" 2015年第2期第4-15叶 [Qin Yaqing, Amitav Acharya. New Development in Theory of International Politics. World Economics and Politics, 2015, no. 2, pp. 4-15 (In Chin.)]

42. 莫盛凯: “权力转移与预防性合作” 载 世界经济与政治 2015年第2期第16-40叶 [Mo Shengkai. Power Transition and Preventive Cooperation: The Path to China-U.S. New Relation from the Perspective of Processual Constructivism. World Economics and Politics, 2015, no. 2, pp. 16-40 (In Chin.)]

43. 陈伟光,王燕:“共建“一带一路”:给予关系治理与规则治理的分析框架” 载 世界经济与政治 2016年第6期第93-112叶 [Chen Weiguang, Wang Yan. Co-constructing the “One-Belt-One-Road”: An Analytical Framework on Relation-Based Governance and Rule-Based Governance. World Economics and Politics, 2016no. 6, pp. 93-112 (In Chin.)]

44. 枊思思: “关系治理与制度治理世界政治与全球治理” 载 国际关系研究文集/秦亚青主编。-北京: 世界知识出版社,2014年 第334-349叶 [Ang Sisi. Relation-based governance and system-based governance. World Politics and Global Governance: Essays on International Relations. Qin Yaqing, ed. Beijing, World Knowledge Press, 2014, pp. 334-349 (In Chin.)]

45. Xie Jun and Chen Qingqing. B&R faces ASEAN uncertainty. Global Times, 05.07.2018, p. 4.

46. Ge Hongliang. Criticism shouldn’t disrupt China-Singapore ties. Global Times, 05.07.2018, p. 5.

Система Orphus

Loading...
Up