USMCA: the reloading of the North American free trade zone

Publication type Article
Status Published
Occupation: Chief of the Center of Iberian Studies, Institute of Latin America, Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
Center of Iberian Studies, Institute of Latin America, Russian Academy of Sciences
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Journal nameLatinskaia Amerika
EditionIssue 12

Mexico, the United States and Canada have reached an agreement on the modernization of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), in force since January 1, 1994. Now NAFTA is replaced by a so called the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), which will lay the main directions of development of integration processes in North America. The trilateral talks initiated by President D. Trump, had the aim of achieving the most favorable conditions for the United States in cooperation with neighboring countries. Under pressure from Washington, Mexico City and Ottawa were forced to go on a number of significant concessions, but in some areas, they retained access to strategically important for them the USA market. USMCA in the future can become a model for other international economic and trade agreements.

KeywordsUnited States, trade policy of D.Trump, Mexico, Canada, the negotiations of NAFTA reform, USMCA, the conditions of the new agreement
Publication date25.12.2018
Cite   Download pdf To download PDF you should sign in
Размещенный ниже текст является ознакомительной версией и может не соответствовать печатной

views: 924

Readers community rating: votes 0

1. Jakovlev P.P. «Jeffekt Trampa» ili konec globalizacii? ["Trump" Effect or the end of globalization?]. M., RUSAJNS, 2017, p. 102-105.

2. McBride J., Aly Sergie M. NAFTA’s Economic Impact. October 4, 2017. — Available at: (accessed 7.10.2018).

3. Jakovlev P.P. Meksika: geopoliticheskij rakurs strukturnyh reform (portret strany-lidera gruppy MINT) [Mexico: geopolitical perspective of structural reforms (portrait of the country-leader of a group of MINT)]. Perspektivy. Jelektronnyj zhurnal. 2015, № 1, p. 79-95.

4. The NAFTA: Canada, Mexico And The USA. May 8, 2017. — Available at: (accessed 5.10.2018).

5. “The Economic Relationship Between the United States, Canada, and Mexico”: Earl Anthony Wayne Testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relationsю January 30, 2018. — Available at: (accessed 2.10.2018).

6. Jakovlev P.P. Global'nyj mir na poroge torgovyh vojn [Global world at the threshold of the trade wars]. Perspektivy. Jelektronnyj zhurnal. 2018, № 1, p. 6-20.

7. K.A m a d e o. Six Advantages of NAFTA. The Hidden Benefits of NAFTA. February 21, 2018. — Available at: (accessed 7.10.2018).

8. “The Economic Relationship Between the United States, Canada, and Mexico”: Earl Anthony Wayne Testifies before the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relationsю January 30, 2018. — Available at: (accessed 6.10.2018).

9. NAFTA, 20 Years Later: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Costs? Feb 19, 2014. — Available at: (accessed 27.9.2018).

10. M.A.V i l l a r r e a l, I.F. F e r g u s s o n. NAFTA Renegotiation and Modernization. July 26, 2018. — Available at: (accessed 7.10.2018).

11. Con Estados Unidos ni confrontación ni sumisión; la solución es el dialogo y la negociación: Enrique Peña Nieto. 23 de enero de 2017. — Available at: https://www.gob.mex/presidencia/prensa/ (accessed 27.9.2018).

12. Jakovlev P.P. «Tramponomika» i parametry global'noj nestabil'nosti [“Tramponomika” and parameters of global instability]. Perspektivy. Jelektronnyj zhurnal. 2017, № 1, p. 5-19.

13. NAFTA Modernization. Key Dates Prior to Commencement of Negotiations. — Available at: (accessed 3.10.2018).

14. Summary of Objectives for the NAFTA Renegotiation. Office of the United States Trade Representative. Executive Office of the President. November 2017. — Available at: (accessed 2.10.2018)

15. Komkova E.G. Perspektivy NAFTA [Perspectives of NAFTA]. SShA * Kanada: jekonomika, politika, kul'tura. 2018, № 2, p. 9.

16. Transcript of Donald Trump Interview With The Wall Street Journal. — Available at: (accessed 6.10.2018).

17. USMCOC submits comments to the U.S. trade representative on negotiating objectives regarding modernization of NAFTA. June 8, 2017. — Available at: (accessed 3.10.2018).

18. Canada Imposes Retaliatory Tariffs on US Goods. July 1, 2018. — Available at: (accessed 7.10.2018).

19. Conozca como Trump dividió a México y Canadá en renegociación del TLCAN. 25 de Septiembre de 2018. — Available at: (accessed 9.10.2018).

20. President Donald J. Trump is Keeping His Promise to Renegotiate NAFTA. August 27, 2018. — Available at: (accessed 9.10.2018).

21. M.B e n d e r. Trump Plans to Rebrand Nafta, Warns Canada. — The Wall Street Journal. New York, 13.09.2018.

22. Joint Statement from United States Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland. — Available at: (accessed 7.10.2018).

23. United States-Mexico-Canada Trade Fact Sheet Modernizing NAFTA into a 21st Century Trade Agreement. — Available at:–mexico–canada-trade-fa-1 (accessed 8.10.2018).

24. United States-Mexico-Canada Trade Fact Sheet Agriculture: Market Access and Dairy Outcomes of the USMC Agreement. — Available at:–mexico–canada-trade-fact (accessed 9.10.2018).

25. Dale D. Trump, Trudeau say NAFTA deal possible by Friday. Aug. 29, 2018. — Available at: (accessed 7.10.2018).

26. Mensaje con motivo del nuevo acuerdo comercial entre los países de Americe del Norte. 1de octubre de 2018. — Available at: (accessed 3.10.2018).

27. Justin Trudeau speaks on new NAFTA: Live video. Oct 1, 2018. — Available at: (accessed 7.10.2018)

28. President Donald J. Trump Secures A Modern, Rebalanced Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico. October 1, 2018. — Available at: (accessed 5.10.2018).

29. Clausula en pacto USMCA disuadiría acuerdo comercial de China con Canadá y México. 3 de Octubre de 2018. — Available at: (accessed 7.10.2018).

30. Fabricantes señalan que iPhone podrá fabricarse en México gracias a Trump. 19 de Agosto de 2018. — Available at: (accessed 2.10.2018).

Система Orphus